Lecture 11 - Chapter 17: Power and Coercion
Lecture 11 - Chapter 17: Power and Coercion HLWL 1109
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HLWL 1109 at George Washington University taught by Philip W. Lucas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Health and Wellness at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Leslie Ogu HLWL 1109 10/11/2016 - Chapter 17: Power and Coercion Thoughts From Class on Reading ● There’s been an increasing number of sexual assault on campus ● It’s a tough topic for people to talk about ● A few cultures use rape as a form of punishment ● The statistics were challenging, and almost scary to see Relation to Current Events: The Election ● Donald Trump seems to dismiss sexual assault as “boys being boys” ● He only lost 1% of voters but it should have been more ● He didn’t apologize to the women for what they said ● He seems pretty ignorant of the fact that a great deal of women are scared on a daily basis of men in general Defining Rape and Sexual Assault ● Rape is physically or psychologically forced sexual intercourse ● Sexual assault is any type of sexual contact or behavior that occurs without consent from the unwanted recipient ○ Includes penetration, forced oral sex, masturbation, touching, fondling or kissing Rape and Sexual Assault Statistics ● Estimates: 1 in 5 women (18.3%) and 1 in 71 men (1.4%) in the US have been raped at some point in their lives ○ In the majority of cases, the victims know their assailants ○ Rape and sexual assault are among the most underreported crimes in the U.S.; only half of all rapes are reported ○ Reasons for not reporting ■ Non-confidentiality, shame, or humiliation Proportion of Reported Rapes by Gender ● Males - 39,590 ● Women - 164,240 Myths About Rape ● Most common rapes: ○ Only “bad” women get raped ○ Women make false reports of rape ○ Women fantasize about rape ○ Men can’t be raped ○ You can tell a rapist by the way he looks ○ No woman or man can be raped against his or her will ○ A man can’t rape his wife ○ Rape only happens to young, attractive women ○ Most rapists rape only once ○ False reporting of rape is common Characteristics of Rapists ● Primarily male, single, and between the ages of 15 and 30 ● History of personal violence ● Multiple victims ● Power rapists ● Anger rapists ● Sadistic Rapists (inflicts pain) ● Studies report 10-30% of men might use force under certain conditions Theories about Rape ● Rapist psychopathology: a disease model ○ Men rape due to alcohol intoxication, mental illness, or uncontrollable sexual urges ○ Disease or alcohol leads men to rape ● Victims precipitation theory: blaming the victim ○ Victims make themselves vulnerable to rape by their dress, behaviors or where they walk ○ Men are more likely to believe this theory than women ● Feminist theory: keeping women in their place ○ Rape and the threat of rape are used y society t keep women in a position subordinate to men’s ○ Sex-role stereotyping encourages rape ● Sociological theory: balance of power ○ Rape is an expression of power differentials in society ● Evolutionary theory: product of evolution ○ Males and females differ in their reproductive strategies Gender Differences in Attitudes about Rape ● Men have less sensitive attitudes towards rape, attribute more responsibility to the victim, believe more rape myths ● Females find rape more justified if a woman was “leading a man on” ● Rape prevention programs have also been related to attitudinal and behavioral changes in college males Ethnic Differences in Attitudes about Rape ● Ethnic minorities tend to have traditional attitudes toward women ● College students from most to least sympathetic of victims: ○ Non-Hispanic Whites ○ African-Americans ○ Hispanics ○ Japanese-Americans ● Asian-Americans are least sympathetic Rape in Different Cultures ● Varies By each culture’s definition: ○ Rape as an entitlement and something that women enjoy: South Africa has the highest reported rape rate ○ Rape as a punishment and/or a legitimate form of control: Cheyenne Indians ○ There are other uses as well Alcohol, Rape, and Sexual Assault ● Alcohol is one of the strongest predictors of rape ○ Up to two-thirds of victims have voluntarily consumed alcohol prior to an assault ○ Alcohol reduces inhibitions, which increases the chances of engaging in risky sexual behaviors for both men and women ■ A drunk man is seen as less responsible, while a drunk woman is seen as more responsible Fraternities, Rape, and Sexual Assault ● Frats have an ethic of masculinity that values dominance and sexual prowess ● Frats are pressured to be sexually successful, maintain secrecy, and protect the group ● Many frats sponsor rape and assault prevention programs, and invite speakers from rape crisis centers ○ Men attending these programs are less likely to commit sexual assault Athletes, Rape, and Sexual Assault ● Higher rates of sexually abusive behavior among male athletes on high revenue-producing compared to athletes on teams that produce less revenue ● Females athletes blame the victim more than do female non-athletes Rape Trauma Syndrome (RTS) ● A two-stage response pattern of physical, behavioral, psychological, ○ Acute phase (stage 1): feelings of shock, anger, fear, etc ○ Long-term reorganization (stage 2): can persist for several years ■ Involves restoring order and regaining control ■ Sexual difficulties can persist Silent Response When Men are Rape Victims ● Rape of men by women ○ Female rapists often use forces sex and verbal coercion; most use psychological or pressured contact ○ Of male college students, 34% reported coercive ● Rape of men by men ○ Gay men raped at a higher rate than hereosexual males ○ Most common sexual assault is anal assault, then oral assault Prison Rape ● Prison Rape Elimination Act (2003) - a federal law with little tolerance for prison sexual assault; mandates data collection ● Statistics ○ 18% of inmates report sexual threat Coping with Rape ● You should try to remember as much of it as possible Reporting Rape ● Rape is underreported ● Pressing charges may be a difficult choice to make ● Many victims are unsure of reporting to the police