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ACBS 160 Week 7 notes

by: Jason Zismann

ACBS 160 Week 7 notes ACBS 160-D1-001

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Jason Zismann

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These notes are on topics that were covered in class. They go over domestication of goats and sheep and the benefits & consequences of domestication.
Hum+Anml Interl Dom-Pres
Dieter Steklis & Netzin Steklis
Class Notes
Domestication, goats, Sheep
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jason Zismann on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ACBS 160-D1-001 at University of Arizona taught by Dieter Steklis & Netzin Steklis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.

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Date Created: 10/14/16
Lecture 24:  “Mane Points” o Domestication of sheep and goat  When, where, how  Mouflon sheep – ancestor for modern sheep o Disappeared by 3,000 BP modern descendants exist today (Ovis)  Bezoar Goat – ancestor for modern goat o Persian wild goat still alive (Capra)  Sheep & Goats o Domestication: shorter horns & legs, less sexual dimorphism (selecting for smaller, less aggressive males) o Sheep and Goats can survive in very arid terrain, and on seemingly nothing o Neolithic farmers in the Near East began keeping small herds of goats for their milk and meat, and for their dung for fuel, as well as for materials for clothing and building: hair, bone o Advantages:  Widely adapted, small body, water economic (don’t need a lot or often), drought resistant, reproduction rate  Fertile Crescent: Archaeological evidence (around 11,000 BP for goats and sheep)  Sheep & Goat Pre-domestication o About 11,000 BP management profiles typical of those employed by modern herders (culling males, killing females after their peak years) o By 10,500 years ago there is good evidence that the relationship between humans and sheep, goats was well along the way to full domestication  Sheep & Goat Full domestication o Turkish village sites of Asikli Hoyuk & Suberde (~8,000 BP) large numbers of goat and sheep; slaughtered between ages 1-3; kept inside the round houses – a primitive form of stabling before domestication o By 6,000 BP in SW Asia herding goats and sheep o Sheep & goats represent about 82% of bones in these sites  Goats & Sheep geographic isolation o Genetic analysis has identified all six lineages of domestic goat among populations of modern bezoar goats (Progenitor species for domestic goat) from eastern Turkey to central Iran o Genetic analysis also points to the domestication of multiple lineages of sheep, which, following the example of goats, may also have been brought into domestication within the same cultural context Lecture 25:  “Mane Points” o Consequences of Sheep/Goat Herding (early farming) o Value of sheep and goats  Consequences of Sheep/Goat farming o Diversification of roles (herders, craftsmen) veterinary medicine, artisans, butchers, etc.) o Notational systems (on bone, then clay, tablets); the first accountants  Value of sheep/goats o Meat, milk, cheese, wool (sheep) Lecture 26:  “Mane Points” o Sheep & goat pastoralism – other consequences  Ecosystem engineering  Disease impacts o One health  Modern Pastoralism: Types of herding o Continuum: Itinerant – to – sedentary  Nomadic (Bedouin – following the available forage)  Goats & other domesticated animals  Semi-nomadic (Mongols – seasonal migration with portable base camps)  Transhumance (Germany/Swiss Alps – seasonal movement of livestock between mountain & lowland pastures)  Going up in summer and down in winter  Ranching (US, Australia – extensive, established grazing operation often with fences and watering)  Landscape transformed o Combination of sheep and goat  Can complement each other (grazer and browser)  Could also devastate a landscape o Nomads – just walk away to nect area o Sedentary – management is necessary o Pastures must be cared for  Not overgrazed, let fallow/recover  Beneficial plants encouraged, planted, weeding  Fencing developed using branched and plants hedges  Disease risks o Hoof & mouth disease epidemic in Europe 2001  Economic cost  Devastation to small farmers  One Health o The One Health concept recognizes that the health of humans is connected to the health of animals and the environment 


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