World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present Week 7 Notes
World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present Week 7 Notes ARC 318L
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luca Tomescu on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARC 318L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Richard Cleary in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present in Architecture at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Tuesday, October 11, 2016 German Werkbund; Futurism What is Modernism? o Modernism is the expression of the condition of being modern (modernity) Five Intellectual Game Changers: o Charles Darwin: biology Adherence to the scientific method Principles of evolution, positing natural selection as the mechanism Implications for architects: Application of an evolutionary analogy to the study of cultural changes, such as architectural types and mode of expression Belief in the existence of natural laws that can be recovered through close observation of the historical record o Karl Marx: political economy Belief in the possibility of the scientific study of history in terms of modes of labor and production: “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.” Study of alienation as a consequence of capitalist industrialization. “Commodity fetishism” fills the vacuum causes by the loss of self in unrewarding labor Implications for Architects: Awareness of class issues and the notion that culture is constructed. What culture is it? How to offset commodity fetishism Imagining an architecture for a classless society o Friedrich Nietzsche: philosophy Critical of the confidence of positivism (the belief that the only valid form of knowledge is that verified empirically) Study human potential free of cultural constraints Notion of the Ubermensch (superman) who rises above the terms of mindless existence Theory of two fundamental impulses in human nature that the ancient Greeks assigned in their mythology to Apollo and Dionysius. The Apollonian impulse is to create the order, viewing the world in terms of rational models (the realm of the beautiful). The Dionysian is the pre-reason and relates to our most fundamental passions (realm of the sublime) Implications for architects: The avant-garde artist/architect as Ubermensch Questioning received truths. Can there be any truth? Explorations of the Apollonian and Dionysian experiences o Sigmund Freud (psychology) Study of the subconscious mind and the creation of a vocabulary for analysis Dreams as the expression of unresolved conflicts Implications for architects: Architecture as settings for and expression of dreams, desires o Albert Einstein: Physics Four papers published in 1905 transformed the discipline of physics (his ideas spread to the arts in the 1910s) Photoelectric effect (light as quanta – wave and particle) Brownian motion Special theory of relativity Mass-energy equivalence Implications for architects: Space-time, simultaneity as inspiration for new architectural ideas The Creative Spirit and Mechanization: Compatible? o Taylorism Frederick Winslow Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management, 1911 Understand the nature of work and make it more efficient Breaking down a large task into basic steps, gathering metrics on each step, and making it more efficient o Fordism Henry Ford, assembly line of standardized components moving through fixed work stations, 1908 o Founded in 1907, the German Werkbund (German work association) was an organization dedicated to improving industrial design by facilitating cooperation among manufacturers, designers, and trade unions How would this be done 1914 debate Hermann Muthesius Promote standardization and creative discipline. Concentrate on the development of mass-produced products for export Henry van de Velde Encourage artistic exploration and personal expression; Maintain the spirit of the arts and crafts movement and seek ways to apply it to manufacturing o Cologne (Germany): Glass pavilion at the Werkbund Exhibition, Bruno Taut, 1914 Model factory: Gropius & Meyer Theater: van de Velde- o Berlin: AEG Turbine factory, Peter Behrens, 1909 A founding member of the German Werkbund (1907), Behrens was the artistic advisor for the AEG company supervising the styling of its products, buildings, and promotional material o Futurism “Futurism Manifesto,” 1909, by Marinetti We intend to sing the love of danger, the habit of energy and fearlessness Courage, audacity, and revolt will be essential elements of our property Up to now literature has exalted a pensive immobility, ecstasy, and sleep. We intend to exalt aggressive action, a feverish insomnia, the racer’s pride, the mortal leap, the punch and the slap We affirm that the world’s magnificent has been enriched by a new beauty: the beauty of speed Served as inspiration for other European architects Sant’Elia and many architects were drafted into their respective armies and died on the field Those who survived were attracted to Fascism Futurism wasn’t a lengthy movement; more like a short poke in the butt Thursday, October 13, 2016 De Stijl; Soviet Avant-Garde De Stijl o Refers to a loose affiliation of artists primarily based in the Netherlands, c. 1915-1931 o Searched for new languages to express their artistic views o Began during WWI, but Netherlands was neutral in the war o Leader of the group was Piet Mondrian Moved to an abstraction of representing forms in his art; later moved to complete abstraction creating relationships of form and color Stuck to basic colors, pure colors, as well as forms His art is meant to be transcendent o Wanted to help society solve the problems that had causes WWI o De Stijl artists disseminated their theories and creative works throughout Europe via journals, such as De Stijl, exhibitions, lectures, inspiring other German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s, project for a brick country house o Doesburg talked about “plastic architecture” how it can change over time o Gerrit Rietveld, Red and Blue Chair, 1917 Idea of vertical and horizontal lines continuing through space Backrest is a plane that seems like it would extend infinitely o Utrecht (Netherlands): Schroder House, Gerrit Rietveld (1888-1964) with client Truus Schroder-Schrader, 1924 Truus wanted the house to be flexible to her as a mother Created a early study model of the house from a block of wood Soon moved on to creating better models of the house; client was very involved in the design of the house Stubs in the walls contained screen elements that could be pulled out to create different combos of rooms Exterior is composed of planes that seem like they could keep extending o Result of living in a new age o This style has the potential to take us to a new spiritual level Communism o Russian Revolution occurred in 1917 o Russians had an all-in mentality in terms of using art to express their Communist views o El Lissitzky, propaganda poster, 1919 “Beat the Whites with the Red wedge” o Constructivism Vladimir Tatlin, Monument to the Third International, 1919, proposed for St. Petersburg Was unbuildable because of Russia’s limited industrial capacity Elements within the structure were supposed to revolve daily o Leading school for design education in the Soviet Union in the 1920s was the Higher Art and Technical Studios 100 faculty and 1200 students o Constructivism was not monolithic Association of New Architects (ASNOVA), sometimes known as Formalists: focused on psychological responses to form and color o Organization of Contemporary Architects (OSA) was another constructivist group Focus on function and process o Moscow: Rusakov Workers’ Club, Konstantin Melnikov, 1927-1928 Melnikov was associated with the ASNOVA group o Ivan Leonidov, final student project, 1927, OSA exhibition Supposed to be a library for all things Soviet Meant to be extremely modern o Moscow: Narkomfin apartment building, Moisei Ginzburg and Ignaty Milinis, 1928-1932 Architecture as a “social condenser” Rethink what it is to be a family; people living and working together Building of the OSA group o Moscow: Red Army Theater, 1940 Shows contradictions in its Roman and Western-inspired architecture
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