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ACBS 160 Week 8 notes

by: Jason Zismann

ACBS 160 Week 8 notes ACBS 160-D1-001

Marketplace > University of Arizona > ACBS 160-D1-001 > ACBS 160 Week 8 notes
Jason Zismann

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These are the notes we went over in class, they will be on the next exam as well. These talk about the domestication of cattle and the importance that cattle had on society; religion, agriculture a...
Hum+Anml Interl Dom-Pres
Dieter Steklis & Netzin Steklis
Class Notes
Domestication, cattle
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jason Zismann on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ACBS 160-D1-001 at University of Arizona taught by Dieter Steklis & Netzin Steklis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
Lecture 27: “Mane Points” o Ancestor of domesticated cattle o Earliest evidence of a pre-domestication  Human-cattle relationships shown in cave art of Western European hunter-gatherers Ancestor of Cattle o Aurochs – over 6ft at shoulder (prey pathway) o Bos (genus) is OW animal; after ice age moved into temperate zones of OW o Mostly extinct by 3,000 BP (very small remnant population in Poland until 1600’s) o 2 aurochs  Taurine cattle (West Asia/ European)  cow  Indicine cattle (India)  zebu (humped) o No remains of Bos ever discovered in NW; brought over with Spanish Prey pathway o ~14,000 BP hunter-gatherers hunted aurochs o ~12,000 BP game/herd management o ~12,000 BP beginning of domestication o ~8,500 BP full domestication in west Asia Aurochs o Pre-domestication  Hunter for meat, horns, hides, sinews o Two caves: Altamira & Lascaux o Altamira cave: (Northern Spain) discovered in 1879; dated to 14,000 BP – hunter-gatherers  Great hall shows 20 adult aurochs in a herd with males at the periphery – like during mating seasons; shows them in mating positions  Aurochs are always in herds, some life-sized  depicted animals that naturally range together: bovines, horses, goats, deer; no predator-prey; no humans hunting shown during mating seasons; shows them in mating position  Aurochs are always in herds, some life-sized  Depicted animals that naturally range together: bovines, horses, goats, deer; no predator-prey; no humans hunting shown  Exquisite artistry  Single artist did the painting  Careful mixing of natural pigments (red ochre) in shells with pigments; “air brush” technique using piece of bone; use of gypsum as binding agent; pebbles to grind pigments  Used rock contour for 3-dimensionality  Artwork so exquisite, for years treated as forgery until discovery of Lascaux cave in France  Lascaux (France) 20,000 BP Lecture 28: “Mane Points” o Cattle domestication: first steps in the prey pathway o Earliest archeological evidence of full cattle domestication in Middle East First Steps o From hunter-gatherer game management to herd management o Archaeological evidence of this step from site in southeastern turkey – Çayönü Tepesi Çayönü Tepesi o 11,000-9,000 BP continuous occupation o As humans hunted the aurochs, the local population declined, as suggested by a decrease in auroch bones prior to domestication o This population decline may have triggered her management of a stable, sustainable source of animal meat and related products o After domestication, bones of domesticated cattle increase dramatically, indicating a complete reliance on domesticated cattle (along with goat, sheep and pig) in place of wild species Cattle food become people food o First clearing of land not for agriculture but for pastures; cattle loved barley and wheat which later became people food o Potatoes and corn brought back to Europe from NW were cattle food first! o Beets, turnips, clover were introduced in Europe for cattle feed Herd management: separation from wild stock o Farmers protect their livestock from interbreeding with wild aurochs because they feared this would introduce wild element and other unfavorable traits into domesticated stock Catal Hoyuk o Earliest Domestication: Catal Hoyuk  Modern Turkey; site dated to 8,500 BP  Agricultural settlement with 1000 houses at its peak; 5000-6000 people  Cattle were main economy o Ceremonial Use: Catal Hoyuk  Rooms with ceremonial shrines  Horn cores of aurochs in shrines  Kfar HaHoresh – Israel o o “Bos Pit” person buried on top of 8 slaughtered aurochs; evidence of mortuary feast Lecture 29: “Mane Points” o Significance of cattle Significance of cattle o Products: milk, blood, meat  Europe, Africa, Asia o Not eaten in SE Asia (sacred cow in Hinduism; symbol of wealth, strength, abundance, selfless giving, and full earthly life; conflict between Hindus and Muslims) o The Milk revolution  Milking and cheese first for ceremonial purposes only  Lactase and lactose intolerance – cows changed human genetics! o Middle East city state of Ur (7000 BP) Pottery showing men milking cattle from behind; must have followed goat and sheep use for milk  Show right horn removed – perhaps were ridden into battle and horn would have blocked throwing spear o Ancient Egypt  Important as labor: Pulled plows for agriculture Chariots  Important in religious life: Mummified bulls in sarcophagi (only the wealthy) Number of gods were worshipped in the form of bulls or cows Bulls were symbols of strength and fertility Cow was a symbol of rebirth: the celestial cow gave birth to the sun every day o Important economically:  Economy based on cows  Census taken every two years for taxes, o Latin: “pecunia” means money; comes from word “pecus” meaning cattle o “capital” derives from chattel (based on cattle) o For many centuries, wives were considered as chattel – an asset, form of wealth Lecture 30:  “Mane Points” o How our relationship to animals has shaped our psychology?  Pastoralist psychology – Culture of Honor  Herder vs. Farmer o Edgerton 1971: comparison of African herding and farming societies:  The most important distinction made by Edgerton between farmers and herders was the predominance of indirect aggression (farmers) as opposed to direct aggression (herders)  Maintaining reputation or honor requires threat of direct aggression (revenge)  Herding societies and culture of honor o Culture of honor theory COH (Nisbett & Cohen 1996)  Based on study of societies in southern US (ancestrally herding) compared to Northern US (ancestrally farming)  South was settled by herdsmen from Scotland and Ireland; the north by farmers from England, Holland, Germany  Violence related to honor (revenge) is more acceptable in South  Differences between South and North for white men only (others come from more diverse background)  Rule of retaliation: if you cross me I will punish you  Because of low population density and often lack of unity and inability to enforce state authority, herders rely less on a penal code and more on the honor code  The COH ideology is a result of the possessive nature of herding peoples and the need to protect and defend herding peoples and the need to protect and defend one’s self, territory and property. (cattle raiding is part of culture)  Culture of Honors o COH societies tend to develop: o 1. Where the individual is in a position of economic risk from theft by others in the community o 2. When there are no strong institutions to prevent or punish theft of property – “Self-help” institutions (like COH) would be expected to develop where social peacemaking institutions (institutions that implement law) are lacking o Ex. Cowboy ethics of the American West (colonized by herders from US South)


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