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CIS 140 Week 7

by: Alexis Mitchnick

CIS 140 Week 7 CIS 140

Alexis Mitchnick

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About this Document

Covers genetic basis of love, heritability, Bayes Rule
Intro to Cognitive Science
David Hoyt Brainard, Lyle H Ungar
Class Notes
Bayes Theorem, Inheritance, Genetics
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Mitchnick on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CIS 140 at University of Pennsylvania taught by David Hoyt Brainard, Lyle H Ungar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cognitive Science in Cognitive Science at University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
Tuesday, October 11, 2016 CIS 140 Week 7 Voles in love - Types of love — are they all really the same thing (chemically, functionally)? - Agape — general affection and love - Eros — passionate (romantic) love - Philia — love of friends and family (friendship) - Is love an addictive disorder? - Prairie Voles and Montane Voles - Prairie — sociable, forms monogamous relationship - Montane — one-night stands - monogamy: “social monogamy” - animal prefers to stay with one partner - 3-5% of animals are monogamous - virtually no species are sexually monogamous - How can we tell if a vole is in love? - experiment — vole will go hang out/cuddle with vole they love over a stranger vole - Oxytocin — a hormone and a neurotransmitter synthesized in the hypothalamus - stimulates uterine contractions - allows the breast to ‘let down’ milk - induces maternal behavior (the “cuddle hormone”) - mice without oxytocin can think normally but have social amnesia (cannot remember people) - plays role in orgasm - down-regulates stress hormones 1 Tuesday, October 11, 2016 - reduces sociophobic behavior - higher in people who claim to be falling in love - human-dog mutual gazing into each other’s eyes affects oxytocin levels - Voles “hooking up” - females treated with oxytocin were more likely to mate, this did not work in males - Oxytocin and dopamine: - a dose of cocaine releases dopamine in nucleus accumbens… mating releases dopamine in same area (in all mammals studied) - monogamous voles have oxytocin receptions in uncles accumbens - non-monogomous voles don’t — but still have the dopamine - Vasopressin — associated with territoriality and aggression (protecting family) - Genetic basis of monogamy: variations of promotor region in DNA affects how much chemical/protein is made (oxytocin and vasopressin) which affects pair bonding - Gene (DNA) —> RNA —> Protein - promotor region controls “expression” of gene (like an on/off switch) - Micro satellite: repeating sequences of 1-6 base pairs of DNA - when in the promoter region, they effect promoter region function - Are humans like pair voles — would you expect a human pair boding to also be similarly affected by genetic mutations? YES - Men have none, one, or two copies of RS3 334 region for vasopressin receptor - higher number of copies, the worse men scored on measure of pair bonding (men with two copies are more likely to be unmarried or have a marital crisis) - RS3 334 also affects chemical signaling in the amygdala - People with autism often have multiple copies of RS3 334 - Microsatellites in front of different neurotransmitter transporters correlate with different mental tendencies/disorders: - Ex. in front of serotonin —> anxiety, in front of dopamine —> ADD 2 Tuesday, October 11, 2016 - Why are prairie voles different? - have different needs (more or less need for a father), if lifestyle involves memorization leads to larger hippocampus then leads to more or less tendency to stay around and raise child - Gene —> Chemical —> Behavior — the common pattern - However, rarely does a single gene control a whole behavior - necessary isn't same as sufficient: lots of genetic changes impair language, few impair language without harming other area of the brain - Heritability: the extent to which genetic individual differences contribute to individual differences observed in behavior (“phenotype”) - the proportion of phenotypic variance attributable to genetic variance (how much does a gene variation affect an aspect of you) - usually measured by comparing monozygotic and dizygotic (identical and fraternal) twins — the measured level of heritability depends on environment children are raised in - Formal Definition: fraction of variation in a trait due to genes - Bell curve: Phenotype v. Number of People, for a given population, there will be some average point (and each individual person is above or below average by a given amount) SD of curve squared = variance - Vp = Vgenes + Venvironment —> variance in phenotype - h^2 = Vgenes/Vp —> heritability - *heritability is a property of a population, not of a person - Heritability — Interpretations: - If the environment is fixed (ex. in a biology lab) — the more strongly genes effect the phenotype (the bigger Vgenes is) the bigger heritability is - If the gene pool is fixed — the more the environment effects the phenotype (the bigger Venvironment is) the small heritability is - Heritability of Personality: - 70% of IQ variance is genetic 3 Tuesday, October 11, 2016 - Minnesota Study of twins, found for most measures (personality, etc.) — monozygotic twins reared apart are about as similar as those reared together - Result: genetic make-up matters way more than environment - Heritability & the environment: - fruit flies produce abnormal wings in offspring if both parents possess specific gene variation - this only occurs if flies are reared in lab held at 20 degrees Celsius, does not occur if lab is 30 degrees - The Flynn Effect — over past century, IQ scores have risen by around 30 points - Why? — huge effect of environment on IQ, even though IQ is massively heritable - increased schooling, change in nutrition, more general access to information, urbanization - Heritability depends subtly on the environment - heritability of intelligence increases with age — you can control your environment more, can make decisions based on their genes more as they get older - adopted parents become more like their birth parents as they age - “We become more like ourselves as we age” - Heritability twin studies: - Decompose environment into parts influenced/not influenced by genes - Vp = Vadditive genes + Vcommon environment + Vunique environment - 1 = A + C + E - Twin Studies: rmz = A + C (correlation of trait in MZ twins), rdz = (1/2)A + C (correlations of the trait in DZ twins) Bayes Rule - Bayes Rule: principled way of building knowledge (prior belief ▯ observe data ▯ update beliefs based on data) 4 Tuesday, October 11, 2016 - Example Problem: Chances that randomly chosen student has the flu is 5%, Chances that if a person has the flu 80% chance they have a fever of 101 or more, if they don’t have the flu chances of 101 or higher fever is 2%... If someone has a fever of 101 or more, what are the chances the person has the flu? - P(Fever | Flu) = 0.80, “P of fever given flu is 80%” Has Fever No Fever Total Has Flu 40 10 50 No Flu 19 931 950 Total 59 941 1000 - Based on Table, P(Flu | Fever) = 40/59 = 68% - To convert all the percents to probabilities, just divide by 1000 - P(Flu AND Fever) = P(Fever | Flu) P(Flu) - Conditional Probability: In general, for two events A and B that either happen or not: - P(A AND B) = P(A | B)P(B) - P(B AND A) = P(B | A)P(A) - ▯ P(A | B) = P(B | A)P(A) / P(B) - Back to flu example, Determining P(Has Fever) - P(Fever) = P(Fever AND Flu) + P(Fever AND No Flu) - ▯ = P(Fever | Flu)P(Flu) + P(Fever | No Flu)P(No Flu) - This process for determining P(Fever) is marginalization - In the context of Bayes rule: P(Flu) is our prior belief - We can obtain data on whether or not a person has a fever… The conditional probabilities P(Fever | Flu) and P(Fever | No Flu) are the likelihoods - After seeing the data, Bayes Rule lets us update our prior belief based on observation of if student has a fever… The updated belief (Flu | Fever) is the posterior 5


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