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BIO Notes 10/10-10/14

by: Emma Benson

BIO Notes 10/10-10/14 BIO 101

Marketplace > Murray State University > Biology > BIO 101 > BIO Notes 10 10 10 14
Emma Benson
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These are notes over the last part of chapter 6 and beginning of chapter 7. Meiosis and genetic diversity.
Biology Concepts
Dr. Oliver Beckers
Class Notes
bio101, Genetics
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Benson on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 101 at Murray State University taught by Dr. Oliver Beckers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Biology Concepts in Biology at Murray State University.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
BIO 101 Notes 10/10-10/14 -Definition -Important Term -Process/Reaction -Key Concept Meiosis • Meiosis: form of cell division that produces gametes • gametes; e.g. sperm and egg cells ◦ produced in gonads; e.g. testes and ovaries ◦ haploid → half the number of chromosomes ▪ two gametes fuse into a diploid zygote (i.e. fetus) • 2 divisions in Meiosis ◦ separate homologous chromosomes ◦ separate sister chromatids ◦ end up with four new cells, each with one-chromatid chromosomes • Before Meiosis, cells go through interphase ◦ DNAreplication takes place (S-phase) ◦ goes from one chromatid to two chromatid chromosomes • Goes through Meiosis I and Meiosis II *phases same as Mitosis except where noted* ◦ Meiosis I ▪ Prophase I ▪ Metaphase I • homologous chromosomes line up on equatorial plane (different from Mitosis) ▪ Anaphase I • homologous chromosomes separated (different from Mitosis) ▪ Telophase I ▪ Cytokinesis ◦ Meiosis II → done on haploid cells (different from Mitosis) ▪ Prophase II ▪ Metaphase II • Chromosomes line up on equatorial plane ▪ Anaphase II • sister chromatids separated ▪ Telophase II ▪ Cytokinesis • four new daughter cells, each with a single one-chromatid chromosome (haploid) • Summary of cell cycle in Meiosis ◦ G phase 1 ◦ S phase → DNArepliation ◦ G p2ase ◦ Meiosis I ◦ Meiosis II • Genetic Diversity ◦ crossing over: when homologous chromosomes exchange parts of the chromosomes (genes) during Prophase I ▪ can happen multiple times for each pair of homologous chromosomes ▪ produces multiple types of gametes rather than just two types ◦ random alignment ▪ Happens in metaphase I ▪ homologous chromosome from mother or father can line up on either side of the equatorial plane Genetic Diversity • crossing over, random alignment/independent assortment create genetic diversity ◦ over 8 million possible combinations for an egg or sperm • with random fertilization (different combinations of egg and sperm) there are over 64 trillion possible combinations • in addition, recombination of genes happens in crossing over Mendelian Genetics • development of a zygote happens with mitosis and differentation • share about 50% of alleles with siblings • monozygotic twin: developed from the same zygote and share 100% of their genes (identical twins) ◦ daughter cells separate and each becomes a separate embryo (1/285 chance) • dizygotic twins: tow separate eggs fuse with different sperm cells (not identical; chance 1/80) • a fully grown human made of trillions of cells ◦ each is a descendant of the zygote containing the same genetic information • two copies of each chromosome ◦ members of pairs are equivalent but not identical → different alleles for same gene ◦ 2 alleles for each trait • genes: store information of ‘how to build an organism’made of segments of DNA Inheritance of Traits • Genes code for proteins • a gene is read/expressed: a protein is synthesized based on the DNAsequence of the gene • proteins make up a lot of our body, such as hair, eyes, skin, muscles, organs, hormones, enzymes, hemoglobin, etc • genes are like instruction manual ◦ genes “words,” chromosomes “pages” • mutations generate genetic diversity ◦ during DNAreplication ◦ wrong base inserted → mutation ◦ can happen during lifetime → more variation between siblings ▪ an early cell that is progenitor of others making up that feature • mutation: change of base sequence ◦ can generate alleles ◦ can occur at random in different genes • types of mutations ◦ neutral: functions in the same way (allele) as original ◦ differently → can be beneficial or harmful ◦ dysfunctional → mutant allele doesn’t work and can be harmful • all cells in body have the same genes but differ ◦ which genes are expressed ◦ which order differs between cell types ◦ each cell may change which genes are expressed during life time • different genes, sequence of genes and timing of expression of words used as instructions differ among cell types ◦ e.g. muscle vs. eye cell • the set of proteins is different for each cell type


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