PSYC 2400 Week 7 Notes
PSYC 2400 Week 7 Notes Psych 2400
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liana Sandell on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2400 at University of Connecticut taught by Dr. Letitia Naigles in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Class Notes October 10, 2016 Parents’ role in play: Singer and Singer studies 1. Parent’s of kids in Head Start, home care (4 year olds) 1. Study 1: focus on school readiness (colors, shapes, counting, words, manners) 2. Study 2: focus on social skills (feelings, making friends, turn taking) 1. Experimental adults: manual and DVD of how to play (restaurant (study 1), making friends (study 2)) 2. Control- adults with no training 3. Play 20-30 minutes/day with child (as normal, or based on what you learned in the DVD) (kid acts as server, birthday child, switch roles, even as the parent!) 3. Before training, pretest kids on school readiness, play skills 4. After 2 weeks of play, post test on school readiness and play skills 1. Experimental kids better than control kids AND experimental kids improved from pre to post test! 2. Study 1: kids learned more about counting, colors, shapes 3. Study 2: experimental kids talked more about their imaginations and emotions Aggression 1. Deﬁne? Just “when play goes awry”? (Preschoolers are not premeditated aggressors) 2. Development within preschool years 1. 1-2 years: 1. Physical with peers, less so with siblings 2. Instrumental and impulsive rather than hostile 2. 3-4 years: 1. Verbal with peers, physical with (younger) siblings! 2. More hostile, more deliberate Bases of aggression 1. Biological 1. Seen in most mammals, even in the young 2. Gender differences 3. Hormonal inﬂuences 1. Female rhesus monkeys who get testosterone prenatally MUCH more aggressive, like male monkeys 2. BUT, not so clear cut with humans: girls who get more androgens are NOT more aggressive (just more active) 3. Link between aggression and testosterone in humans seen most in delinquent populations and adolescents 4. WHY would 4- year old males be so aggressive? Testosterone levels not so different at this age Class Notes October 12, 2016 The puzzle of language acquisition 1. Language is a very complex system 2. It is learned with few errors 3. It is learned without direct instructions 1. Parents don’t usually correct Kids don’t usually listen to corrections 2. This thing we call language 1. Morphology: putting together meaningful units 1. Words (book, boy, build, play, fast) 2. Sufﬁxes (-s, -ed, -er) and preﬁxes (re-, un-) Plural (mall + s), past tense (walked + ed) 3. 4. Rules and exceptions: 1. Plural of “blick”? past tense of “krad”? 2. Pleural of “man”? past tense of “go”? Word associations Lexicon 1. Organized by meaning 2. Words grouped by: 1. Kinds of objects 2. Functions of objects 3. Physical features of objects Shapes of actions 4. 5. Situations of actions: 1. Hierarchies of more-to- less general categories 2. ANIMAL-DOG-POODLE More on what is language Syntax: putting together words to make sentences, sentences are rule 1. governed 2. Inﬁnite number of possible sentences, so actual sentences can’t be memorized 3. Sentence-> Subject + verb +object 1. Subject/object-> article + adjectives + noun Rules for word order vary by language 4. 1. English is SVO: John gave the book to Mark. 2. Hindi is SOV: John the book to Mark gave. 3. Russian is more free And ﬁnally • Discourse: putting together sentences to make stories, conversations, disputes. Using language to convey metaphors and puns. Also shows cross-cultural variation! The natural history of LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1. Around 12 months: mama, dada, breast (in Kaloli) 2. 2 ndyear: accumulate words: juice, hi, toy, dog, up, cup, ball 3. 20-24 months: 2-word combinations: more juice, daddy home, baby up, no toy, read book, also vocabulary skyrockets! 4. Around 30 months: 3 and 4 word combinations: play in pool, man goes there, I did it 5. 3 years: full sentences, including more “grammatical” words! But: mouses, eated (?) 6. 4-5 years: compound/complex sentences, creativity Word learning 1. The induction problem 2. GAVAGAI: rabbit, brown, furry, running, etc. 3. Holds for both actions and objects: toss, fall, ﬂy 4. Action words also vary across language: the girl runs out of the house/La nina esta saliendo de la casa Class Notes October 14, 2016 Bases of aggression II 1. social 1. patterson: 1. looked at aggression and how it is handled at home and at preschool (3-5) 2. looked at what did the teachers do, what did the kids do? found that aggressors (hits, grabs, bites etc) often rewarded because they get a toy 3. or get to do an activity 4. aggression is often modeled (parents may ﬁght at home) 1. difﬁcult measure to collect 2. done in a retrospective study (ex. how much did your parents ﬁght at home) 2. adolescent study: 1. more aggressive adolescents had parents who tolerated their aggression as preschoolers (don’t remember being told not to hit) 2. suggestive ﬁnding, not conclusive 3. more aggressive adolescents were active and impulsive as preschoolers as well More social bases 1. bandora laboratory study based on watching aggression in kids 2. bobo doll is a doll thats blown up and has weights at feet 3. watch a video of adults interacting with cartoon character “bobo” doll 4. there were three scenarios 1. talked to 2. hit 3. ignored 5. kids later interacted with bobo dolls 6. result: group 2 behaves more aggressively than group 1 or 3 Inﬂuence of television? 1. big question: what is the direction of causality 1. does violent television cause aggression or do aggressive kids watch more violent television 2. study one: tv new vs. familiar 3. measure levels of aggression in play in group A, just before TV is introduced and in group B who already watched TV (5 yo) 4. measured levels of aggression in both groups, 2 years later (7 yo) 5. showed that groups A’s aggression increased, but group B’s did not 6. because of this we can see that those who watched TV before 5 were more aggressive later on 2. recent study: kids who watched more violent TV at ages 6-9 years were more likely to hit or shove their spouses, reported watching more violent TV in their 20s 3. two sets of couples 1. produced and experiences some abuse 2. normal couple no report of abuse 4. this shows that TV plays a role in whether an individual thinks it is OK or not to use aggression later on Roles on NONviolent TV? 1. study 3: singer and singer 1. preschoolers will look at a certain TV show (non violent) 2. half watch “barney and friends” everyday for 2 weeks 3. other half just played as usual in classroom 4. compared how aggressive were they before the two weeks to after the two weeks 5. during outside play on the playground, barney watchers were less aggressive than non watchers 6. suggests that TV that explicitly promotes nonaggressive behaviors have some effect in the short term 7. short term study not long term Bases of aggression III 1. cognition: understanding another’s intentions 1. dodge study: 4 yo boys in classroom 2. teachers labeled (rated) each as having positive or negative aggression (more aggressive or less aggressive, it was on a continuum) 3. dodge took boys work on puzzles into room with a lot of cubucles, brought to own cubby, then leaves 4. boy builds puzzle, then boy leaves 5. hear puzzle break, plus either: 1. benign: gee, he did a lot. Oh, I didn’t mean to break it! (sounding contright and expressing sorrow) 2. hostile: gee he did a lot. i’ll mess it up 3. ambiguous: gee, he did a lot 6. then look at child and how he reacted 7. if B, fewer got upset 8. if H, more children got mad 9. if A, only aggressive children became mad (assume hostility) 10. if you are inherently a pieceable person, even when presented with ambiguous situation you don't assume the worst 11. if you are inherently aggressive, in ambiguous situations you assume hostility that is not there Access to screens of affects emotional cognition Controlling aggression 1. timeouts 1. helpful, except when kids hit to be alone 2. not a good way to punish because it doesn’t teach how to negotiate with others, and problem solve 2. reward non-aggression or negotiation 1. praise nice play 2. teach how to use words 3. reward use of words 4. ignore aggressors (some kids are aggressive because that is the way they are getting attention) 3. explicit talk about others’ feelings and intentions 4. aggressive behaviors decrease
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