PSY 320 Week 8 Notes
PSY 320 Week 8 Notes PSY 320
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Wade on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at Colorado State University taught by Martha D Amberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
10/12/16 Chapter 8 Schizophrenia - Psychosis - inability to make distinction between what is real and what is unreal ● Break from reality - perceiving things in their environment or within them that is no there - Schizophrenia - severe form of psychosis; alternate between: ● Clear thinking and communication accurate perceptions of reality, proper functioning ● Active phase of illness - disorganized thinking and speech, lose touch with reality, difficulty caring for self - People are not “schizophrenics”; they are someone who has schizophrenia - Schizophrenia Spectrum - five domains of symptoms that define psychotic disorders ● Positive symptoms - presence of additional behaviors, thoughts, or perceptions that wouldn’t normally be there ○ Delusions - believe something to be true but it is highly unlikely or impossible ■ Types of delusions ● Bizarre - highly unlikely and extremely odd (FBI replaced loved ones with clones) ● Non-bizarre - theoretically possible but not likely (FBI is secretly videotaping you) ● Persecutory - everyone is out to get you ● Erotomanic - someone loves you even though you may not have ever met them ● Many more ○ Hallucinations - unreal perceptual experiences ■ Auditory and tactile (hearing) ○ Formal thought disorder - change topics with little coherent transition ■ Loose associations or derailment ○ Disorganized or catatonic behavior - unpredictable and apparently untriggered agitation ■ Catatonia - being unresponsive to the environment (adding behavior of unresponsiveness) ● Negative symptoms - absence of behaviors, thoughts, or perceptions that normally would be there ○ Restricted affect - severe reduction/absence of emotional expression ○ Avolition - Inability to initiate or persist at goal-directed activities (distinct from depression because this only happens during active phase of illness) ■ Cognitive deficits - basic cognitive processes are impaired or slowed down ● Number of symptoms ● Severity of symptoms ● Duration of symptoms - Number of symptoms and the disorder differs across individuals - Diagnostic Criteria for Schizophrenia ● 2 or more positive or negative symptoms ● Decreased functioning ● Persists at least 6 months ● Schizoaffective disorder and depressive or bipolar disorder with psychotic features have been ruled out ● Not caused by a substance or medical condition ● Account for history on autism spectrum ● Has to be hallucinations and/or delusions - Active/Acute phase - presence of symptoms, consistently and acutely for at least one month ● Prodromal symptoms - before the acute phase ● Residual symptoms - after the acute phase - Onset ● Typically onset occurs between 16-25 years of age ○ More males ○ Women have another increase of onset in 40s - Prognosis ● Rehospitalization rates between 50-80% ● Stabilize after first episode within 5-10 years ● Gender and age factors ○ Women develop the disorder later ■ Typically milder symptoms, more favorable outcome ○ Functioning and symptoms improve with age Other Psychotic Disorders - Schizoaffective disorder ● Mix of schizophrenia and a mood disorder - Schizophreniform disorder ● Meets criteria A, D, and E of schizophrenia ● Symptoms only last 1 to 6 months - Brief psychotic disorder ● Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or disorganized behavior between 1 day and 1 month 10/14/16 Delusional disorder - Delusions lasting at least 1 month regarding situations that occur in real life Schizotypal disorder - Lifelong pattern of significant oddities to self-concept, ways of relating to others, and thinking and behavior Schizoaffective disorder - Not cyclical like schizophrenia - uninterrupted phase - Depression - Delusions or hallucinations for 2 or more weeks Biological theories of psychotic disorders - Genetic transmission ● Family studies - biological relative with schizophrenia increases an individual’s risk ● Adoption studies - parent with schizophrenia creates a stressful environment for children ● Twin studies - Genetic predisposition plus biological and environmental factors influence manifestation of the disorder - Birth complications/ prenatal exposure to viruses affect brain development - Neurotransmitter theories - Excess levels of dopamine contribute to schizophrenia ● Phenothiazines or neuroleptics - block the reuptake of dopamine, reducing the functioning level in the brain ● Drugs that increase the functional level of dopamine increase the incidence of the positive symptoms (not good symptoms) ● Neuroimaging studies - Presence of more receptors for dopamine and higher levels of dopamine - Mesolimbic pathway - Subcortical-processing of salience and reward - Antipsychotics bind to a specific type of dopamine receptor common in the mesolimbic system, blocking the action of dopamine - Unusually low dopamine activity i n the prefrontal area of the brain - Serotonin neurons regulate dopamine neurons in the mesolimbic system Anatomical abnormalities - Enlargement of lateral ventricles - Smaller than normal total brain volume - Cortical atrophy - some areas of the brain are pulling away, not as good of connections - Widening third ventricle (bigger part of the brain means it’s squishing the things around it) - Smaller hippocampus Psychosocial Perspective - Social drift - people with schizophrenia tend to drift downward in social class compared to family of origin ● Generally people tend to stay at or move up in social class from the one they were born in ● Schizophrenic symptoms interfere with completion of education and/or job ○ Generally schizophrenia onset occurs when people are at college age/trying to get a career ● Stress increases risk and is linked to relapse ● Families can limit growth of the autonomous sense of self if they are overprotective ● Expressed emotion - shown by family members are associated with multiple episodes and relapse Cognitive Perspectives - Difficulties in attention, inhibition, and adherence to the rules of communication - Delusions - explain strange perceptual experiences - Hallucinations - Hypersensitivity to perceptual input, tendency to attribute experiences to external sources - Negative symptoms - expect social interactions to be aversive and ,so they conserve cognitive resources
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