AGRI 116 Week 8 Notes
AGRI 116 Week 8 Notes AGRI 116 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Wade on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AGRI 116 001 at Colorado State University taught by Andrew P. Norton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Plants and Civilizations in Agricultural and Environmental Plant Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
10/10/16 Biological Role of the Flower - Flowers produce the sex organs and sex cells - This is the place where pollination and fertilization occur - Pollination - the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a flower ● Self-pollinating flowers - plant can fertilize itself ● Cross-pollinating flowers - wind, water, animals help to pollinate the flower ○ Chance (cause allergies) ■ Produce tremendous amounts of pollen ■ Release the pollen into the air or water ■ Rely on chance to land on the rights place ■ Wind pollination - need lots of pollen, efficiency rapidly falls off with distance ○ Get outside help ■ Animals (bees, bats, people etc.) ■ Coevolution of flowers and pollinators - the interaction of species as selective forces upon each other, resulting in adaptations that enhance their independency. The chance of a biological object triggered by the change of another biological object ■ Much of the time this is a case of mutualism ● Both species benefit ■ Plants offer a reward and advertise - Animal Pollination 1. The plant wants a pollinator to go to other flowers of the sae species, not to flowers of other species 2. Plants have evolved many ways to accomplish this - colors, shape, secondary plant metabolites, etc. 3. Animals will not work for free (Need reward or perception of reward) ● Plants must reward or trick the animals into helping them get pollinated 4. Animals can increase the efficiency of pollination, even for self pollinators - Pollination Syndromes ● A pollination syndrome is the set of traits associated with a given group of pollinators ● What is attractive to one group (i.e. bees) is not …. ● …. ● Bee pollination syndrome ○ Yellow, blue, or white flowers ○ Abundant nectar ○ Pleasant fragrance ○ Shallow, tubular flowers ○ Landing pand seen in ultraviolet ● Hummingbird pollination syndrome ○ Red, tubular type flowers ○ No landing pad ○ Ample, hidden nectar ○ No fragrance ● Bat pollination syndrome ○ Night blooming, usually white or light color ○ Often open, bowl like flowers ○ Strong, sweet fragrance ○ Lots of nectar ● Moth pollination syndrome ○ Deep, tubular flowers ○ Usually white or pale flowers ○ Evening or night blooming ○ Strong, sweet fragrance ○ Lots of nectar ○ Relatively little pollen ● Fly pollination syndrome ○ Dark red or purple ○ No nectar ○ Strong, putrid fragrance 10/12/16 Smelling biology The Human Angle: - Instinctually tells us to get away from certain smells, warns of danger like smoke, poison, rot - Sense of smell is responsible for about 80% of what we taste - Sense of smell is 10,000 times more sensitive than sense of taste - Olfaction - sense of smell ● Connected to limbic system - tied to memory and emotional behavior - Three physical characteristics of things we can smell: ● It must be volatile - it must easily evaporate at normal temperatures and atmospheric pressures ● It must be (somewhat) water soluble - molecules of the substance must pass through the mucus that coats the inner surface of the nasal cavity and reach the olfactory cells ● It must be (somewhat) lipid soluble - Olfactory hairs are composed primarily of lipids and the surface of the olfactory cells are also lipid containing The Plant Angle: - Essential Oils (A plant’s signature scent) ● A complex mixture of volatile organic compounds that can easily turn into a gas and waft through the air ● Secondary plant metabolite/products - compound that occurs in plants but is not required for its direct survival, but contributes to aroma ○ Component of value for perfumes (and medicines) ○ Contribute to the essence or aroma of some plants Scent and Memory - The Proustian Effect - When a particular smell unleashes a flood of memories, bringing you back to a particular time or place ● Coined by Marcel Proust ● One of the first to link smell to memory ● La Recherche Temps Perdre - wrote book from his bed with smells coming in through his window - Memory processing tied to smell Scent Marketing - Scent branding ● When a person smells a new odor or fragrance they link it to an event, person, place, or moment ● Companies are using certain scents to create a positive association for consumers between specific scents and the goods they sell - 4 Scent markets ● Billboard smell - make a bold statement ○ Fresh popped popcorn at movie theaters ○ Fresh baked cookies at an open house ○ Fresh ground coffee at coffee shops ● Thematic smell - compliments a decor and ties in with all the other sensory elements (vision, sound, taste) to communicate some sort of message ○ Trees, lights, carolers and spice smells for holidays ● Ambient smell - fills a void or covers an (often unwanted) odor ○ Air fresheners in bathrooms ○ Ambient smell in hospitals to make the experience more relaxing and less scary ● Signature smell - exclusive smell that is developed for a product ○ Hard Rock Cafe - unique ice cream shop scent ○ Sony Style - unique new sony product scent - Pro’s of scent marketing ● Build value - seem more valuable, luxurious ○ People are willing to pay about 15-20% more ● Influence clientele ● Differentiate product - Niche marketing ● Control what odors and where - Con’s of scent marketing ● Overwhelming the senses - could be too much ● Individual association to a particular smell ○ People have different experiences and associations with smells ● Questionable ethics of manipulating consumers emotions using smell ○ Got Milk? Cards that smell like cookies bothering homeless people and people with diabetes