Notes for September 21st
Notes for September 21st HORT 3440
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Shah on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 3440 at University of Georgia taught by James Affecter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants in Biology/Anthropology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Notes for Sept. 21 Hippocrates ○ 460 – 377 BCE ○ The Greek “Father of Medicine” ○ He considered illness to be a natural rather than supernatural phenomenon; medicine should not involve ritual ceremonies or magic ○ By today’s standards, Hippocrates had a remarkably holistic approach ▪ “It’s more important to know what sort of person has a disease than what sort of disease a person has” ▪ If we could give every individual the right amount of nourishment and exercise, not too little or not too much, we would’ve found the safest way to health” ▪ “Cure sometimes, treat often, comfort always” ▪ “Natural forces within us are the true healers of disease” Theory of the Four Humors ○ ○ Four principal fluids (humors) exist within the body ○ The balance of those fluids determines a person’s character and health ○ Imbalance resulted in illness; the task of the physician was to restore balance HUMOR ORGA TEMPERMEN CHARACTERISTICS N T Blood Heart Sanguine Courageous, hopeful, playful, carefree Yellow Bile Liver Choleric Ambitious, leaderlike, restless, easily angered Black Bile Spleen Melancholic Despondent, quiet, analytical, serious Phlegm brain Phlegmatic Calm, thoughtful, patient, peaceful Galen ○ 131201 CE (AD) ○ Developed a highly theoretical system of illness based on the Humoral Theory ○ Galen’s system gave physicians a theoretical framework to work within, while often ignoring pragmatic results ○ Galen led to the divergence between professional physicians and traditional healers; the former looked down on the latter ○ His system prevailed in Europe for more than 1500 years “Heroic” Medicine ○ Hippocrates: “Desperate cases need the most desperate remedies” ○ Europe was swept by terrible plagues from the Middle Ages onwards ○ Mercury was somewhat effective against syphilis; eventually it was being prescribed for everything, indiscriminately ○ Illness was thought to result from overstimulation of the blood and the nervous system ○ Treatment consisted of draining off the excess “humors” by a variety of means Heroic Treatment Options ○ Bleeding – venesection (cutting open a vein) and cupping ○ Dosing with mercury (or antimony or other heavy metal poisons) in the form of Calomel (Hg 2L )2 this was a powerful purgative (and a severe poison) ○ Blistering – applying hot (temperaturewise and causticwise) plasters to the skin to promote blisters, which were then drained ○ Emetics – induced vomiting Dr. Samuel Hahnemann & Homeopathy ○ German physician who was appalled by Heroic medicine ○ Too some cinchona bark (quinine) and developed symptoms similar to malaria ▪ Concluded that “like cures like” The Law of Similars Cinchona ○ Coffee fam ○ Cinchona spp. ○ Large forest tree native to the Andes (Peru, Colombia, & Ecuador) ○ Bark is used and is the source of the alkaloid quinine ○ Interferes with the metabolism of the malaria parasite Plasmodium Homeopathic Beliefs and Practices ○ Every person has an energy called a vital force or selfhealing response which can become disrupted ○ Homeopathy stimulates the body’s own healing response ○ Treatment involves getting very small doses of substances called “remedies” that would produce similar symptoms of illness in a healthy person if given in larger doses (like cures like) Homeopathic Paradox ○ Law of Infinitesimals: the more dilute an agent, the greater the healing power ○ Systematically diluting a substance with vigorous shaking at each step of dilution (“succussions”) makes the remedy more effective by extracting the vital essence ○ Most remedies come from plant, animal, or mineral sources ○ Clinical trials are inconclusive (Placebo effect?) Samuel Thomson ○ 17691843 ○ American appalled by Heroic medicine ○ Came from humble beginnings ○ “all disease is caused by cold” ○ Emphasized emetics, purgatives, stimulants, and steam baths ○ Principal herbs were Lobelia (emetic, relaxant, panacea) and cayenne pepper (stimulant); both increase body temperature and dilate blood vessels ○ Included about 65 herbs; drew heavily from Native American uses of medicinal plants ○ Thomson was empirical; regulars emphasized theory ○ He was a strong and determined advocate, opposed by the medical establishment ○ Had many followers, but never popular with wealthy, educated classes Dr. Wooster Beach and the “Eclectics” ○ 17941868 ○ Came from relatively privileged background but was appalled by Heroic medicine ○ Apprenticed with an herbalist in NJ ○ Earned a traditional medical degree; wanted to change the system “from within” ○ Sought to combine new scientific knowledge with best of herbal tradition. (Eclectic medicine) ○ Several Eclectic medical schools were established during the mid and late19 th century, primarily in Midwestern states 19 Century Shakers in America ○ Shaker Herb Farms ○ Thriving wholesale herb business by mid1800s ○ Gathered, grew, and processed more than 400 species of medicinal plants ○ Sold directly to physicians and pharmacists (exclusively) ○ Emphasis on quality control; known for consistent product ○ Relied on European introductions, as well as native species Patent Medicines (Quack Quack) ○ Usually about 2550% alcohol ○ Often contained powerful drugs such as opium, senna, antimony, and ipecac (emtic) ○ Advertised as “blood purifiers” ○ “One dose for a man, two for a horse” Ipecac ○ Coffee fam ○ Psychotira ipecacuanha ○ Tropical shrub native to Brazil ○ Dried roots are the source of the alkaloids emetine and cephaeline ○ Expectorant at low doses (used to treat bronchitis), strong emetic at higher doses Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound ○ An herbal recipe for “female complaints” that became a profitable patent medicine business ○ Encouraged women to take control of their own health and offered tips for healthy living ○ Secret recipe included Black Cohash (which does help) ○ Lydia Pinkham’s innovative marketing strategy appealed to both women and men Gradual Ascendancy of Organic, or “Bench” Chemistry ○ While many patent medicines remained barbaric, modern scientific medicine was th gaining steam during the 19 Century ○ Development of the microscope, germ theory of disease, diagnostic xrays ○ Pharmaceutical businesses were growing; “made in the laboratory” came to mean “more reliable, safer, and more effective” than herbal remedies th ○ Mainstream medicine was at odds with herbal medicine at the end of the 19 Century