New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Notes for September 21st

by: Meghan Shah

Notes for September 21st HORT 3440

Meghan Shah
GPA 3.78

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

History of medicine Hippocrates to laboratory produced drugs
Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants
James Affecter
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants

Popular in Biology/Anthropology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Shah on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 3440 at University of Georgia taught by James Affecter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants in Biology/Anthropology at University of Georgia.


Reviews for Notes for September 21st


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/14/16
Notes for Sept. 21   Hippocrates ○ 460 – 377 BCE ○ The Greek “Father of Medicine” ○ He considered illness to be a natural rather than supernatural phenomenon;  medicine should not involve ritual ceremonies or magic ○ By today’s standards, Hippocrates had a remarkably holistic approach ▪ “It’s more important to know what sort of person has a disease than what sort  of disease a person has” ▪ If we could give every individual the right amount of nourishment and  exercise, not too little or not too much, we would’ve found the safest way to  health” ▪ “Cure sometimes, treat often, comfort always” ▪ “Natural forces within us are the true healers of disease”  Theory of the Four Humors ○ ○ Four principal fluids (humors) exist within the body ○ The balance of those fluids determines a person’s character and health ○ Imbalance resulted in illness; the task of the physician was to restore balance HUMOR ORGA TEMPERMEN CHARACTERISTICS N T Blood Heart Sanguine Courageous, hopeful, playful,  carefree Yellow Bile Liver Choleric Ambitious, leader­like, restless,  easily angered Black Bile Spleen Melancholic Despondent, quiet, analytical, serious Phlegm brain Phlegmatic Calm, thoughtful, patient, peaceful  Galen ○ 131­201 CE (AD) ○ Developed a highly theoretical system of illness based on the Humoral Theory ○ Galen’s system gave physicians a theoretical framework to work within, while  often ignoring pragmatic results ○ Galen led to the divergence between professional physicians and traditional  healers; the former looked down on the latter ○ His system prevailed in Europe for more than 1500 years  “Heroic” Medicine ○ Hippocrates: “Desperate cases need the most desperate remedies” ○ Europe was swept by terrible plagues from the Middle Ages onwards ○ Mercury was somewhat effective against syphilis; eventually it was being  prescribed for everything, indiscriminately ○ Illness was thought to result from over­stimulation of the blood and the nervous  system ○ Treatment consisted of draining off the excess “humors” by a variety of means  Heroic Treatment Options ○ Bleeding – venesection (cutting open a vein) and cupping ○ Dosing with mercury (or antimony or other heavy metal poisons) in the form of  Calomel (Hg 2L )2 this was a powerful purgative (and a severe poison) ○ Blistering – applying hot (temperature­wise and caustic­wise) plasters to the skin  to promote blisters, which were then drained ○ Emetics – induced vomiting  Dr. Samuel Hahnemann & Homeopathy  ○ German physician who was appalled by Heroic medicine ○ Too some cinchona bark (quinine) and developed symptoms similar to malaria  ▪ Concluded that “like cures like”  The Law of Similars  Cinchona  ○ Coffee fam ○ Cinchona spp. ○ Large forest tree native to the Andes (Peru, Colombia, & Ecuador)  ○ Bark is used and is the source of the alkaloid quinine ○ Interferes with the metabolism of the malaria parasite Plasmodium  Homeopathic Beliefs and Practices ○ Every person has an energy called a vital force or self­healing response which  can become disrupted ○ Homeopathy stimulates the body’s own healing response ○ Treatment involves getting very small doses of substances called “remedies” that would produce similar symptoms of illness in a healthy person if given in larger  doses (like cures like)  Homeopathic Paradox ○ Law of Infinitesimals: the more dilute an agent, the greater the healing power ○ Systematically diluting a substance with vigorous shaking at each step of dilution  (“succussions”) makes the remedy more effective by extracting the vital essence  ○ Most remedies come from plant, animal, or mineral sources ○ Clinical trials are inconclusive (Placebo effect?)  Samuel Thomson  ○ 1769­1843 ○ American appalled by Heroic medicine ○ Came from humble beginnings ○ “all disease is caused by cold” ○ Emphasized emetics, purgatives, stimulants, and steam baths ○ Principal herbs were Lobelia (emetic, relaxant, panacea) and cayenne pepper  (stimulant); both increase body temperature and dilate blood vessels ○ Included about 65 herbs; drew heavily from Native American uses of medicinal  plants ○ Thomson was empirical; regulars emphasized theory ○ He was a strong and determined advocate, opposed by the medical  establishment ○ Had many followers, but never popular with wealthy, educated classes  Dr. Wooster Beach and the “Eclectics” ○ 1794­1868 ○ Came from relatively privileged background but was appalled by Heroic medicine ○ Apprenticed with an herbalist in NJ ○ Earned a traditional medical degree; wanted to change the system “from within” ○ Sought to combine new scientific knowledge with best of herbal tradition.  (Eclectic medicine) ○ Several Eclectic medical schools were established during the mid­ and late­19  th century, primarily in Midwestern states  19  Century Shakers in America ○ Shaker Herb Farms ○ Thriving wholesale herb business by mid­1800s ○ Gathered, grew, and processed more than 400 species of medicinal plants ○ Sold directly to physicians and pharmacists (exclusively) ○ Emphasis on quality control; known for consistent product ○ Relied on European introductions, as well as native species  Patent Medicines (Quack Quack) ○ Usually about 25­50% alcohol ○ Often contained powerful drugs such as opium, senna, antimony, and ipecac  (emtic) ○ Advertised as “blood purifiers”  ○ “One dose for a man, two for a horse”  Ipecac ○ Coffee fam ○ Psychotira ipecacuanha ○ Tropical shrub native to Brazil ○ Dried roots are the source of the alkaloids emetine and cephaeline  ○ Expectorant at low doses (used to treat bronchitis), strong emetic at higher doses  Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound  ○ An herbal recipe for “female complaints” that became a profitable patent  medicine business ○ Encouraged women to take control of their own health and offered tips for  healthy living ○ Secret recipe included Black Cohash (which does help) ○ Lydia Pinkham’s innovative marketing strategy appealed to both women and men  Gradual Ascendancy of Organic, or “Bench” Chemistry ○ While many patent medicines remained barbaric, modern scientific medicine was th gaining steam during the 19  Century ○ Development of the microscope, germ theory of disease, diagnostic x­rays ○ Pharmaceutical businesses were growing; “made in the laboratory” came to  mean “more reliable, safer, and more effective” than herbal remedies th ○ Mainstream medicine was at odds with herbal medicine at the end of the 19   Century


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.