CDFR 2000 Ch 6 Notes
CDFR 2000 Ch 6 Notes CDFR 2000
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by AmberNicole on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFR 2000 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Archana Hegde in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Child Development I: Prenatal through Middle Childhood in Child Development and Family Relations at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Chapter 6: Cognitive development in infancy and toddlerhood Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory Piaget's sensorimotor stage spans the first two years of life o Piaget believed that infants and toddlers "think" with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipments o They cannot yet carry out many activities inside their heads Piaget's ideas about cognitive change Specific psychological structures- organized ways of making sense of experience called schemes and they change with age In Piaget's theory, two processes, adaptation and organization, account for changes in schemes o Adaptation Adaptation involves building schemes through direct interaction and the environment Consists of two complementary activities: assimilation and accommodation During assimilation, we use our current schemes to interpret the external world o Example: when Timmy dropped objects, he was assimilating them to his sensorimotor dropping scheme During accommodation, we create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely When children are not changing much, they assimilate more than they do accommodate- a steady, comfortable state that Piaget called cognitive equilibrium During times of rapid cognitive change, children are in a state of disequilibrium, or cognitive discomfort o Organization Organization, a process that occurs internally, apart from direct contact with the environment Once children form new schemes, they rearrange them, linking them with other schmees to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system The sensorimotor stage The circular reaction provides a special means of adapting their first schemes o It involves stumbling onto a new experience caused by the baby's own motor activity o The reaction is circular because, as the infant tries to repeat the event again and again, a sensorimotor response that originally occurred by chance strengthens into a new scheme Repeating change behaviors o Around 1 month, as babies enter substage 2, they start to gain voluntary control over their actions through the primary circular reaction, by repeating chance behaviors largely motivated by basic needs o Motor achievements strengthen the secondary circular reaction, through which babies try to repeat interesting events in the surrounding environment that are caused by their own actions Intentional behavior o Intentional, or goal directed, behavior, coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems o Piaget's famous object hiding task, in which he shows the baby an attractive toy and then hides it behind his hand or under a cover. Infants of this sub stage can find the object by coordinating two schemes – pushing aside the obstacle and grasping the toy. Piaget regarded these means – end action sequences as the foundation for all problem solving o Object permanence, the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight. But this awareness is not yet complete. Babies make the A-not-B error: If they reach several times for an object at a first hiding place (A), then see it moved to a second (B), they still search for it in the first hiding place (A) o Tertiary circular reaction, in which toddlers repeat behaviors with variation, emerges Mental representation o Mental representations are internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate. o Our most powerful mental representations are of two kinds Images-mental pictures of objects, people, and spaces Concepts- categories in which similar objects or events are grouped together o Invisible displacement- finding a toy moved while out of sight, such as into a small box while under a cover o It also permits deferred imitation – the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present o Makes possible make-believe play, in which children act out everyday and imaginary activities Summary of Piaget's sensorimotor stage Reflexive schemes (birth to 1 month) o Newborn reflexes Primary circular reactions (1-4 months) o Simple motor habits centered around the infant's own body; imited anticipation of events Secondary circular reactions (4-8 months) o Actions aimed at repeating interesting effects in the surrounding world; imitation of familiar behaviors Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8-12 months) o Intentional, or goal directed, behavior; ability to find a hidden object in the first location in which it is hidden (object permanence); improved anticipation of events; imitation of behaviors slightly different from those the infant usually performs Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 months) o Exploration of the properties of objects by acting on them in novel ways; imitation of novel behaviors; ability to search in several locations for a hidden object (accurate A-B effect) Mental representation (18 months-2 years) o Internal depictions of objects and events, as indicated by sudden solutions to problems; ability to find an object that has been moved while out of sight (invisible displacement); deferred imitation; and make believe play Follow up research on infant cognitive development Violation of expectation method o They may habituate babies to a physical event (expose them to the event until their looking declines) to familiarize them with a situation in which their knowledge will be tested o Or they may simply show babies an expected event (one that is consistent with reality) and an unexpected event (a variation of the first event that violates reality ) o Heightened attention to the unexpected event suggests that the infant is surprised by a deviation from physical reality and, therefore, is aware of that aspect of the physical world Mental representation Older infants and toddlers even imitate rationally, by inferring others; intentions By 10 to 12 months, infants can solve problems by analogy- apply a solution strategy from one problem to other relevant problems Symbolic understanding o The realization that words can be used to cue mental images of things not physically present- a symbolic capacity called displaced reference that emerges around the first birthday o The capacity to use language as a flexible symbolic tool – to modify an existing mental representation – improves from the end of the second into the third year The video deficit effect – poorer performance after a video than a live demonstration Some cognitive attainments of infancy and toddlerhood Birth-1 month o Secondary circular reactions using limited motor skills, such as sucking a nipple to gain access to interesting sights and sounds 1-4 months o Awareness of object permanence, object solidity, and gravity, as suggested by violation-of-expectation findings; deferred imitation of an adult's facial expression over a short delay (one day) 4-8 months o Improved knowledge of object properties and basic numerical knowledge, as suggested by violation of expectation findings; deferred imitation of an adult's novel actions on objects over a short delay (one to three days) 8-12 months o Ability to search for a hidden object when covered by a cloth; ability to solve simple problems by analogy to a previous problem 12-18 o Ability to search in several locations for a hidden object (accurate A-B search); awareness that objects continue to exist in their hidden locations even after the toddler has left the location; deferred imitation of an adult's novel actions on objects after long delays (at least several months) and across a change in situation (from child care to home); rational imitation; inferring the model's intentions; displaced reference of words 18 months-2 years o Ability to find an object moved while out of sight (invisible displacement); deferred imitation of actions an adult tries to produce, even if these are not fully realized; deferred imitation of everyday behaviors in make believe play; beginning awareness of pictures and video as symbols of reality Evaluation of the sensorimotor stage Core knowledge perspective, babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems, or core domains of thought o Each of these prewired understandings permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefore supports early, rapid development o Researchers have conducted many studies of infants' physical knowledge, including object permanence, object solidity (that one object cannot move through another), and gravity (that an object will fall without support) Core knowledge theorists also assume that an inherited foundation of linguistic knowledge enables swift language acquisition in early childhood Critics take issue with the core knowledge assumption, based on violation of expectation findings, that infants are endowed with knowledge Piaget's legacy These ideas serve as the basis for another major approach to cognitive development-information processing A general model of infomration processing First, information enters the sensory register, where sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly By attending to some information more carefully than to other information, you increase the chances that it will transfer to the next step of the information processing system In the second part of the mind, the short term memory store, we retain attended to information friefly so we can actively work on it to reach our goals o The short term store is in terms of its basic capacity, often referred to as short term memory: how many pieces of information can be held at once for a few seconds Working memory is the number of items that can be briefly held in mind while also engaging in some effort to monitor or manipulate those items o Working memory can be thought of as a mental workspace that we use to accomplish many activities in daily life The model of the human information processing system: inofmration flows thorught three parts of the mental system: the sensory register, the short term memory store, and the long term memory store. In each, mental strategies can be used to manipulate information, increasing the efficiency and flexibility of thinking and the chances that information will be retained. The central executive is the conscious, reflective part of working memory. It coordinates incoming information already int eh system, ecides what to attend to, and oversees the use of strategies. To manage the cognitive system's complex activities, the central executive directs the flow of information, implementing the basic procedures just mentioned and also engaging in more sophisticated activites that enable complex, flexible thinking. For example, the central executive coordinates incoming information with information already in the system, and it selects, applies, and monitors strategies that facilitate memory storage, comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving. Automatic processes are so well learned that they require no space in working memory, and, therefore, permit us to foucs on other information while performing them Long term memory is our permanent knowledge base Retrieval is getting information back from the system Categorized by its contents Information processing researchers believe that several aspects of the cognitive system improve during childhood and adolescence o The basic capacity of its stores, especially working memory o The speed with which information is worked on o The funcitoning of the central executive Together, these changes make possible more complex forms of thinking with age Executive function – the diverse cognitive operations and strategies that enable us to achieve our goals in cognitively challenging situations Over the first year, infants attend to novel and eye catching events. In the second year, as toddlers become increasingly capable of intentional behavior, attraction to novelty declines (but does not disappear) and sustained attention improves, especially when children play with toys Memory At first, infants' memory for operant response is highly context-dependent Habituation research A familiarity preference Novelty preference Recall memory Recognition- noticing when a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced Recall is more challenging because it involves remembering something not present Categorization Even young infants can categorize, grouping similar objects and events into a single representation Infantile amnesia Infantile amnesia- that most of us cannot retrieve events that happened to us before age 3 We can recall many personally meaningful one time events from both the recent and the distant past: the day a sibling was born or a move to a new house- recollections known as autobiographical memory Hippocampus (located under the temporal lobes), which plays a vital role in the formation of new memories Evaluation of information processing findings A dynamic systems view The social context of early cognitive development Vygotsky's sociocultural theory emphasizes that children live in rich social and cultural contexts that affect the way their cognitive world is structured The zone of proximal (or potential) development refers to a range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners As the child joins in the interaction and picks up mental strategies, her competence increases, and the adult steps back, permitting the child to take more responsibility for the task. This form of teaching- known as scaffolding- promotes learning at all ages Computing intelligence test scores Intelligence tests for infants, children, and adults are scored in much the same way- by computing an intelligence quotient (IQ), which indicates the extent to which the raw score (number of items passed) deviates from the typical performance of same-age individuals To make this comparison possible, test designers engage in standardization- giving the test to a large, representative sample and using the results as the standard for interpreting scores Normal distribution, in which most scores cluster around the mean, or average, with progressively sample and using the results as the standard for interpreting scores Normal distribution is in which most scores cluster around the mean, or average, with progressively fewer falling toward the extremes- bell shaped curve and is used to examine individual differences in large samples Predicting later performance form infant tests Because most infant test scores do not tap the same dimensions of intelligence measured at older ages, they are conservatively labeled developmental quotients (DQs) rather than IQs Home environment The home observation for measurement of the environment (HOME) is a checklist for gathering information about the quality of children's home lives thorugh observation and parental interview Parents who are genetically more intelligent may provide better experiences while also giving birth to genetically brighter children, who evoke more stimulation from their parents- genetic environmental correlation Developmentally appropriate practice- these standards, devised by the U.S. National Association for the Education of Young Children, specify program characteristics that serve young childrne's developmental and individual needs, based on both current research and consensus among experts Signs of developmentally appropriate infant and toddler child care Physical setting o Indoor enviornment is clean, in good repair, well lighted, and well ventilated o Fenced outdoor play space is available o Setting does not appear overcrowded when children are present Toys and equipment o Plays materials are appropriate for infants and toddlers and are stored on low shelves within easy reach o Cribs, high chairs, infant seats, and child sized tables and chairs are available o Outdoor equipment includes samll riding toys, swings, slide, and sandbox Caregiver child ratio o In child care centers, caregiver-child ratio is no greater than 1 to 3 for infants and 1 to 6 for toddlers o Group size is no greater than 6 infants with 2 caregivers and 12 toddlers with 2 caregivers o In family child care homes, caregiver is responsible for no more than 6 children; within this group, no more than 2 are infants or toddlers o Staffing is consistent, so infants and toddlers can form relationships with particular caregivers Daily activities o Daily schedule includes times for active play, quiet play, naps, snacks, and meals o It is flexible rather than rigid, to meet the needs of individual children o Atmosphere is warm and supportive, and children are never left unsupervised Interactions among adults and children o Caregivers respond promptly to infants' and toddlers' distress; hold, talk to, sing, and read to them; and interact with them in a manner that respects the individual child's interests and tolerance for stimulation Caregiver qualifications o Caregiver has some training in child development, first aid, and safety Relationship with parents o Parents are welcome anytime o Caregivers talk frequently with parents about children's behavior and development Licensing and accreditation o Child care setting, whether a center or a home, is lecensed by the state o In the US, voluntary accreditation by the National Association for the Education of Young Children or the National Association for Family Child Care is evidence of an especially high quality program The nativist perspective of language development According to linguist Noam Chomsky's (1957) nativist theory, language is a uniquely human accomplishment, etched into the structure of the brain Language acquisition device (LAD), an innate system that contains a universal grammar, or set of rules common to all languages. It enables children, no matter which language they hear, to undersatnd and speak in a rule-oriented fashion as soon as they pick up enough words Minimal language input o Nevertheless, in interacting with one another, they spontaneously produced a gestural communication system, called homesign, strikingly similar in basic strucutre to hearing children's verbal language Milestones of language development during the first two years 2 months o Infants coo, making pleasant vowel sounds 4 months on o Infants observe with interest as the caregiver plays turn taking games, such as pat a cake and peekaboo 6 months on o Infants babble, adding consonants to their cooing sounds and repeating syllables o By 7 months, babbling starts to include many sounds of spoken languages o Infants begin to comprehend a few commonly heard words 8-12 months o Infants bewcome more accurate at establishing joint attention with the caregiver, who often verbally labels what the baby is looking at o Infants actively participate in turn taking games, trading roles with the caregiver o Infants use preverbal gestures, such as showing and pointing, to influence others' goals and behavior and to convey information 12 months o Babbling includes sound and intonation patterns of the child's language community o Speed and accuracy of word comprehension increase rapidly o Toddlers say their first recognizable word 18-24 months o Spoken vocabulary expands from about 50 to 200 words o Toddlers combine two words Cooing and babbling Around 2 months, babies begin to make vowel like noises, called cooing because of their pleasant "oo" quality o Gradually, consonant are added, and around 6 months babbling appears, in which infants repeat consonant vowel combinations, often in long strings, such as "bababababa" or "nanananana" Cochlear implant-an electronic device surgically inserted into the ear that converts external sounds into a signal to stimulate the auditory nerve Becoming a communicator The joint attention, in which the child attends to the same object or event as the caregiver First words When young children first learn words, they sometimes apply them too narrowly, an error called underextension Overextension is applying a word to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate The two word utterance phase Spurt in vocabulary is a transition from a slower to a faster learning pace These two word utterances are called telegraphic speech because, like a telegram, they foucs on high content words, omitting smaller, less important ones (can, the, to) Comprehension versus production Produciton is the words and word combinations children use Comprehension is the language they understand Individual and cultural differences Referential style: their vocabularies consisted mainly of words that referred to objects Expressive style: compared to referential children, they produce more social formulas and pronouns Supporting early language learning Respond to coos and babbles with speech sounds and words o Encourages experimentation with sounds that can later be blended into first words o Provides experience with the turn taking pattern of human conversation Establish joint attention and comment on what child sees o Predicts earlier onset of language and faster vocabulary development Play social games, such as pat a cake and peekaboo o Provides experience with the turn taking pattern of human conversation Engage toddlers in joint make believe play o Promotes all aspects of conversational dialogue Engage toddlers in frequent conversations o Predicts faster early language development and academic success during the school years Read to toddlers often, engaging them in dialogues about picture books o Provides exposure to many aspects of language, including vocabulary, grammar, communication skills, and information about written symbols and story structures Supporting early language development Infant directed speech (IDS), a form of communication made up of short sentences with high pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, clear gestures to support verbal meaning, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts Zone of proximal development in which children's language expands