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History 1302 - Lecture Notes Week #8

by: Alexandra Furman

History 1302 - Lecture Notes Week #8 History 1302

Marketplace > University of Texas at El Paso > History > History 1302 > History 1302 Lecture Notes Week 8
Alexandra Furman
GPA 3.66

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During this week's single lecture, Professor Ramirez concluded his discussions on the threat of communism. He then proceeded to outline advances and changes in society from the 1920s onward.
History of the U.S. since 1865
Professor Ramirez
Class Notes
Red-Scare, bolshevik, revolution, rockefeller, Palmer, raids, Harding, Cox, Progressivism, Fordney-McCumber, Hawley-Smoot, ACT, Hoover, cars, ford, capitalism, welfare
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Furman on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1302 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Professor Ramirez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see History of the U.S. since 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
History 1302 October 10, 2016 Professor Ramirez Lecture Notes KEY TERMS KEY INFO KEY PEOPLE RedScare  Fear in the US of a communist takeover  Race Riots  Labor Unrest following the war o Seattle general strike – organized by communists  Russian Revolution of November 1917 (Bolshevik Revolution) o Created the first communist country on Earth (the soviet union) o Communist International 1919  Goal was to spread communism throughout the world  Created by the sovietunion o American Communist Party 1919  Increased fear of a communist takeover  TerroristAttacks o Bombings in 1919, attempted to kill prominent Americans like John Rockefeller, Supreme Court leaders,etc. o Largest outside a bank in NYC killed 30 Americans  Organized by anarchists, but that didn’t make a difference to Americans The new enemy  Radicals  Foreigners = radicals(American conclusion)  Targeted o Working class o Jews, Slavs, Italians  Fear Justified? o No, most immigrants were not communists Palmer Raids  Violation of civil rights (one of the most egregious violations)  Led by the attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer o Attempt to crush radicalism o Previously a reformer  General Intelligence Commission o Created by palmer o Collected information on radicalgroups/organization  Began in November 1919  6,000 arrested in January 1920 o Largest raid o American citizens arrested,held, unable to communicate with lawyers,beaten, forced to write confessions, guilt by associations  These raids had the American support o But as more and more rights are violated, the citizens began to defer their support Election of 1920  Disillusionment as a result of the war,labor unrest/race riots, and redscare  Warren Harding o Republican candidate o Not a reformer o Won by a landslide, 60% of the popular vote  James Cox o Democratic candidate o Reformer from Ohio  “Return to normalcy” o Promised by Harding if he were to be elected  Election symbolized an end to progressivism New Era (1920s)  Emergence of a mass consumer culture (placedmore value on material goods)  Changing gender expectations  Unequally distributed wealth (had the poor and then had the upper-middle class and upper class)  Economic Growth o Low Inflation o Higher Wages o Increased industrial production  Clash of culture between: o Rise of Modern US citizens  Concentrated incities o Traditionalists  Small towns and countryside Economy and Technology  Technological Advances o Machines o Moving assembly line o Movies, airplanes, radio  Introduction of sound to movies  Improvements in airplanes  Introduction of radio Government Support of Business  High Tariffs o Fordney-McCumber Act (1921) o Hawley-Smoot Act (1930) o These placed the highest tariffs on foreign made goods  Andrew Mellon o Secretary of the treasury o Convinced congress to eliminate the excess profits tax as well as to lowerincome taxes on individuals and corporations  Cutbacks in FTC o The FTC created to regulate big business  Herbert Hoover o Secretary of commerce and later president of the US o Believed it was the governments obligation to help business o Encouraged price fixing Mass Consumer Society  Purchase More than basic necessities o Home appliances  Washing machines, vacuum cleaners o Radios o Cars (priorto the 1920s, cars were considered to be a luxury; during/after the 1920s, they were considered to be a necessity) Factors that increased popularity of Cars  Credit o 1925: 25% of cars were purchased using an installment plan  Cost o Began to decreaseduring the 1920s  Used Cars o Market for used autos if they couldn’t afford a new vehicle Ford Motor Co.  A leading innovator in the industry  Model-T o It was a fairly inexpensive car o Could travel on poor roads o 1927: the company had manufactured 15 million of these cars  $5 day o Highest paid workers in the industry o Reduced turnover of employees  Moving assembly line o Allowed cars to be produced cheaply and quickly Car as Necessity  Switch over from luxury to necessity in1920  Robert and Helen Lynd, Middletown (1929) o Book based on researchconducted inMuncie, Indiana o Showed how industrialization had impacted traditional values (including their views toward cars)  People were willingto sacrifice food, clothing, and savings in order to purchase a car Effectsof the Car  Vehicles are one of the top industries inthe US at the time o 13% of manufactured goods o 375,000 people employed directly, millions employed indirectly o Stimulated steel, rubber, gas industries o Needed gas stations, restaurants, hotels, road construction to cater to the needs of the American driver  Economic  Social o Increased mobility of Americans o Blurred the distinction between the city and countryside Advertising  Reached millions of Americans through newspaper,radio,and magazines  Promoted Mass Consumption o Used “experts,” athletes to sell or advertise products o Differentiate one product from another (to show how their product is superior) o Create needs that had not previouslyexisted o Use of personal testimony (especiallymedical professionals) Labor in the Twenties  Maldistribution of Income despite the economic growth o Most wealth generated went directlyto wealthy Americans o 2/3 of Americans lived inpoverty or subsistence level o Organized labor experienced successes and failures in the 1920s  “Welfare Capitalism” o Henry Ford of ford motor co. o Provided benefits to workers  Shorter work week  Higher wages  Paid vacations  Pensions o Why did employers do this?  Attempt to discourage the formation of unions  Or unions would be generated by the company itself (but wouldn’t address their problems)  Most Workers not impacted by welfare capitalism o Ignored a large section of the labor force o Wages remained fairlystagnant; 1920-1926 wages only increased by 2%,average income was 1500 per year (whichwas considered subsistence….1800 per year was minimum standard)  Weak unions th (End of lecture for Oct 10 )


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