ARHI 2300 notes week 9
ARHI 2300 notes week 9 ARHI 2300
Popular in Art History I: Cave Painting to Michelangelo
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddi Huff on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARHI 2300 at University of Georgia taught by Neely, Elizabeth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Art History I: Cave Painting to Michelangelo in Art at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Guide: Works of art Vocabulary People ARHI 2300- Cave Painting to Michelangelo Lecture Notes Week 9 10/10/16 Byzantine 1. Constantine united Rome and moved capital to Constantinople 2. It is united and introduced to Christianity under Theodosius, until he dies and empire is split into Eastern and Western halves 3. The land is later reclaimed by Justinian, who declares Christianity to be the only lawful religion a. This is known as Orthodox Christianity, and it introduced the three equal parts of the father, son, and holy spirit b. He is responsible for numerous building campaigns 4. Hagia Sophia a. Church was later turned into mosque b. Domed basilica i. Basilica aspects- nave, side aisles, apse, narthex ii. Center plan aspects- central dome crossing 1. Uses pendentive- holds up circular dome on square base c. Dome significantly taller than that of Pantheon d. Natural light reflected d of gold on the interior, meant to evoke heaven e. Architects are Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus 5. San Vitale a. Centrally planned church b. Dome-covered octagon c. Uses ambulatory d. Presbytery- space around alter reserved for elders e. Apse mosaic depicts Christ at his second coming. He offers a wreath of martyrdom do Saint Vitale. Bishop Ecclesius gives model of church to Christ. f. Justinian and his retinue- mosaic of Justinian with twelve attendants (clergy, attendants, soldiers) i. Soldier carries shield with Chi Rho ii. Alludes to Christ iii. Justinian holds paten- bowl for bred for Eucharist iv. Justinian has halo v. Similar to Augustus of Primaporta g. Theodora and her attendants i. Mosaic ii. She carries chalice for wine of the Eucharist iii. Her rank is not as high as that of Justinian iv. San Vitale cases the feeling of Justinan’s presence in Ravenna, even though he never travelled there h. Sant’ Apollinare is Classe i. Sant’ Apollinaris amid sheep 1. Monumental apse mosaic 2. Depicts him surrounded by twelve sheep 3. He is a martyr 4. Includes Latin cross Guide: Works of art Vocabulary People 5. In orant pose ii. Ascension of Christ- illuminated manuscript 1. From Rabbula Gospels 2. Tempera on Parchment 3. Mandorla- full body halo 4. Depicts ascension of Christ to heaven to reclaim his throne 5. Includes virgin even though she is not present in the text, this is because the cult of the virgin was growing in popularity a. She is considered the theotokos- mother of god b. She is the queen of heaven c. She is in the orant pose 10/12/16 Byzantine and Islamic iii. Theotokos and Child between Saints Theodore and George 1. Icon- sacred image, which is thought to be means of communication to God a. Reproduction of a true image of God b. Note: preferred titles are Christ and the Virgin, not Mary and Jesus 2. People in the painting wear halos 3. Painted by Saint Luke a. People would pray to the saints who would then communicate to the Virgin and Child, who would then communicate to Christ i. Hierarchy of communication 6. Iconoclasm a. Iconoclasts- “image breakers” b. Officials supported Iconoclasm c. Christ began to be viewed as a mortal, holy human 7. Theotokos and Child Enthroned- painting found in Hagia Sofia a. Depicted on elaborate gold background and lavish throne b. Depicted more realistically 8. Christ as a Pantokrator- image of risen Christ as judge and ruler of all a. Central image of Christ in dome b. Higher points in church are closer to heaven. Christ is higher up than bishops. 9. Crucifixion- depicts Christ on cross a. Called the “second Adam” because he is to rectify the wrongs done by Adam b. He is often depicted on to of Adam’s scull c. He is shown as weak and human 10.Monreale Cathedral a. Christ Penrokrater mosaic on apse i. Still depicted as judge, but less stern 11.Theotokos and Child- Russian icon a. Denotes important shift in Virgin and Child imagery because it depicts closeness between the mother and child Guide: Works of art Vocabulary People b. Image is very sorrowful c. Striations- gold line work found in byzantine art 12.Islamic art a. Muslims, while accepting Hebrew prophets, believed Muhammad to be the last prophet (including Moses, Abraham, and Christ) b. They study Qur’an c. Islam spread rapidly though Africa and the near east d. After his death, four people take up the role of caliph as his successors e. People who believed Ali should have been the successor are called Shi’ite f. The Shia people are against him and are the larger group g. Almost no figures in Islamic art h. Quseir Amra- reception hall and bath complex where caliph would have stayed i. Not a religious space ii. Depicts bathing women among other paintings on the walls 10/12/16 1. Dome of the Rock- important to Islam, Judaism, and Christianity a. Third holiest site in Islam b. Shrine, not a mosque c. Located on the temple mount d. Centrally planned structure e. Borrows aspects from other cultures f. Sits on octagonal drum g. Mosaic has been restored several times h. Interior decorated with gold, vibrant colors, mosaics, and calligraphy i. Aniconism- the absence of figural images of gods ii. Arabesques- surface decorations based on rhythmic, linear patterns iii. Two ambulatories iv. Interior of dome is lines with script to evoke the divine i. Foundation rock- is said to be the site of Abraham preparing to sacrifice Isaac, Muhammad’s night journey, and burial place of Adam’s bones i. Contains entrance to partially man-made cave where souls wait to be judged (Well of Souls) 2. The Kabba in Mecca- holiest site in Islam a. Five Pillars of Islam i. There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is prophet ii. Pray five times a day toward Mecca iii. Charity to poor iv. Fast during month of Ramadan v. All who are able must make pilgrimage to mecca in lifetime 3. The Prophet’s Mosque in Medina Saudi Arabia- second holiest site in Islam a. Series of battles fought between Mecca and Muslims b. Used to be a pagan place of worship 4. Architectural vocabulary a. Qiblah- direction Muslims face when praying Guide: Works of art Vocabulary People b. Minaret- tower from which the faithful are called to worship c. Prayer hall- place set aside for the purpose of praying i. No furniture, only elaborate rugs d. Hypostyle hall- two-tiered arches to make space brighter e. Voussoir- wedge shaped stone block used in the construction if a true arch f. Quiblah wall- one side of mosque always faces toward Mecca, marked by niche i. Mihrab- semicircular niche set into the quiblah wall of mosque g. Maqsaura- screened area in front of the mihrab reserved for a ruler