Notes from September 28th
Notes from September 28th HORT 3440
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Shah on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 3440 at University of Georgia taught by James Affecter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants in Biology/Anthropology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Horticulture Sept 28 Horticulture ○ The branch of agriculture that deals with “garden crops,” like fruits, nuts, vegetables, ornamental plants, and medicinal plants. ○ Commercial, largerscale plant production ○ Includes trees ○ Things you’d grow in a very large garden. Selfsufficient estate garden. Useful plants for consumption am Commercial Production Methods for Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants ○ Field cultivation ○ Greenhouse cultivation ○ Hydroponics ○ Artificial shade ○ Woodland culture Field Productions of MAPS ○ Most economical method ○ Climate and soils must be suited to the crop ○ Preparation of seedbed, planting, weed and pest control, and harvesting can by highly mechanized, depending on the crop and the scale of the operation ○ Certified organic production brings a premium price Absinthe is an alcoholic drink made from anise, fennel, and wormwood (Artemesia absinthium) (sunflower fam); it’s experiencing a resurgence in the US ○ Banned in 1912 in US because of supposed hallucinogenic effects; certain products were legalized in 2007 ○ Strong licorice aroma and taste ○ Contains a compound called thujone that is toxic in excessive amounts, but you would probably die of alcohol poisoning before you drank enough absinthe to feel the effects ○ Favorite of Pablo Picasso and Oscar Wilde; rumors link to Vincent Van Gogh cutting off his ear. Geography and climate play an important role in field production. ○ Certain climates favor the production of certain herbs and spices ○ Ex: ▪ Jamaica produces allspice, ginger, and turmeric ▪ Canada products oregano, mustard, and parsley Organically produced crops can be sold at a premium, and this technique is often appropriate for culinary herbs and medicinal plants ○ No use of prohibited substances (artificial stuff) on site for at least three years ○ Soil organics must be maintained or improved ○ Regular testing of surface ground water ○ Maintenance of buffer zones around crops Greenhouse production ○ Environmental conditions can be optimized for plant growth ○ Yearround growth ○ Useful for herbs that are tender, in great demand, where appearance is a factor ○ Good for propagating herbs for wholescale market or as transplants ▪ Growing them to a certain size and then giving it to a nursery to grow ○ A lot of control on conditions, so you can grow virtually anything ○ You need a lot of input and maintenance to keep environment right and good for plants ○ You can protect plants and keep them from harm Hydroponic Production ○ Growing plants in a nutrient solution without soil ○ Allows precise control over nutrients; eliminates soil borne weeds and diseases, minimizing herbicide and pesticide use ○ Require less fertilizer and water than field production ○ Allows intensive production in a small space ○ Extended growing season ○ Max control Artificial Shade ○ Some MAPS cannot tolerate full sun, like ginseng & ginger ○ Shade cloth and wooden lath (slits of wood, spaced apart) allow control over how much light reaches plants ○ Exposes plants to ambient temperature and some air flow ○ Less expensive than greenhouses Woodland Culture ○ Growing plants under a forest canopy ○ Useful for many of our native southeastern plants that grow in the forest understory (ginseng, goldenseal, black cohosh) ○ Can vary in intensity and expense – can put a little to a lot of work into it Advantages of Cultivation over Harvesting from the Wild ○ Supply and availability ○ Quality control – identification, adulteration, harvest conditions, sanitation, etc. ○ Genetic manipulation – can make cultigens (like garlic); artificial selecting for qualities you want ○ Agronomic manipulation – how much water, what kind of soil and nutrients, ○ Postharvest handling – processing into products – like with black pepper What are some of the ways that you can improve medicinal plants using genetic or agronomic techniques? ○ Yield – like response to fertilization ○ Chemistry – aroma, nutritional value, etc. ○ Appearance important in fresh material ○ Ease of harvest size, date of maturation ○ Pest and disease resistance ○ Climatic tolerance – hardiness, drought resistance Field Production of Peppermint ○ Perennial plant, propagated by runners or cuttings ○ Plants last 56 years ○ Needs rich, welldrained soil ○ Requires full sun and lots of moisture ○ Production in the US is centered in the Midwest (Indiana) and Northwest (Washington) Commercial production of peppermint ○ Midwest, esp. Indiana is good place for peppermint and stuff like basil (mint fam stuff) (climatewise) ○ Hydrodistillation: boiling water under mixture of herbs or whatever; steam volatile oil mix goes up, through condenser (glass thing in cold water with tubes to release heat, two ends – one takes in steam, one drips out liquids)– drips into beaker. Oils don’t dissolve in water, so you can easily separate and collect the oils ○ Field production of peppermint ▪ Perennial – don’t have to replant every spring, but every few years, you dig it up and plant a new one
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