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ENEC 201 WEek 8 Notes: 10/10/16-10/14/16

by: Hadley Ashford

ENEC 201 WEek 8 Notes: 10/10/16-10/14/16 ENEC 201

Hadley Ashford
GPA 3.776

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These notes cover food and the Rural Sustainability Summit
Class Notes
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Popular in Environment and Ecology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENEC 201 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by GANGI,GREGORY J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY in Environment and Ecology at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.

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Date Created: 10/14/16
ENEC 201 Week 8 Notes: 10/10/16-10/14/16 10/10/16 - Green Revolution: move from subsistence farming to large-scale agriculture o Pros greatly outweigh cons because would have experienced mass starvation o Cons:  Increased chemical use  Poor farmers can’ t compete with wealthy, big farms  Ruralurban migration when no money for poor farmers, but no jobs in cities either  Environmental damage  Power in the hands of few large agriculture companies - Threats of food security: o Climate change:  Shifting climate zones: more places will be unfit to produce crops- countries capable of producing may no longer be able to and countries without proper infrastructure will be forced to produce  Unpredictable weather: unable to prepare for droughts or floods  increased crop failure  Will cause fluctuations in global food prices, which is a huge deal for the poor  Increased natural disasters: inflict damage on crops and infrastructure  Sea level rise: lose a lot of necessary farmland- less crops can be produced  Grain production: rising temperatures stop reproduction of grains  Stop reproducing at certain temperature  Must start producing crops that can withstand higher temperatures  Increased tempsmore generations of pests in single growing season  Will increase reliance on/necessity of pesticides  Pathogens flourish in warmer temps- increased risk of disasters like Irish Potato Famine o Depleted fisheries:  Fish faster than populations able to replenish  Ocean acidification: affects coral reefs and shell fish  Disrupts ocean ecosystem  Increases jellyfish populations because survive better in acidic water  Increased mercury accumulation  From burning of coal  Better technology increases accuracy  faster depletion ,difficult to control amount  Bottom trawling destroys ocean habitats o Deadzones along coast o Climate change as threat to national security  People in poor countries will want to migrate to countries with more wealth or with better access to food o Soil degradation through erosion, runoff, overexploitation o Poor infrastructure  Difficult to store food surplus - Food waste from improper storage/transportation 10/12/16 - Increased drought from climate change projected to fall on places with high crop production - Peak oil: marks when humans have used half of world oil, from time of peak oil and beyond, production decreases o Difficult to determine exactly when this is because new oil resources being discovered (ex. Tar sands, fracking) - Role of oil in food: o Transportation- food miles o Used to create fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides o Used in production of feed for livestock o Machinery on farms that increase production - Oil markets unstable o Lack of transparency: countries aren’t always upfront about how much oil they have o Cartel of oil-producing countries control prices - Natural gas price increases  nitrogen fertilizer price increases - Peak phosphorus: o Most phosphate found concentrated in Morocco o Have to mine it o One single country has ability to determine global price o Dwindling supplies o Phosphate also found in human waste and animal manure - Threats to food security: o Demographic changes o Poverty o Lack of investment in infrastructure technology o Climate change, etc. - Must respond to food insecurity now, not when consequences are in full effect - Must increase agricultural productivity to address problems - Solutions to coming famine: no one single answer, should be a combination of labor-intensive and capital-intensive factors o GMO’s: polarizing solution (either love it or hate it)  Pros:  Protect against drought, pests, and other challenges while decreasing environmental impact (less need for pesticides or water input)  Increase nutrition  better public health and food security, less micronutrient deficiencies o Ex. Golden Rice: incorporates beta carotene, which protect against blindness from micronutrient deficiencies  Protects against large-scale crop failure due to monoculture/industrial agriculture- fixes problem quicker  Extend food life  Increase yield/production  Adapt to climate change consequences (drought, floods, high winds, etc.)  Cons:  Using same genetic variety can increase risk of widespread crop failure  Possibility of increased allergens: associated with cleaner environment and more perfect foods, bodies begin to see harmless things as harmful because haven’t experienced them  Control of seeds by few large companies: hurts small farmers  Unknown future environmental impact: GMO’s exist under optimal conditions o Difficult to survive if introduced in the wild  Ethical objections: humans playing God and shouldn’t do that 10/14/16 - Economic development of rural areas- goal of Roanoke Energy Cooperative o Makes businesses competitive in larger market - Roanoke Energy cooperative is an energy provider, so many think it’s strange that they are supplying broadband o Someone needs to do it - Economic geography matters o Originally thought that internet would make all areas essentially equal with all the same opportunities o Didn’t play out that way- rural communities commonly disconnected  Many rural communities chose to use resources for other interests/priorities - NC is growing- becoming urban/modern community o But rural population is large nd o 2 largest rural population in country - Broadband implications: o Education: switch to digital textbooks  Without broadband, difficult for rural youth to do homework  Shouldn’t be put at competitive disadvantage o Healthcare: many rural hospitals on shaky financial grounds  Telemedicine- regionalization of healthcare  High speed broadband important to increase quality of healthcare system o Manufacturing: NC lost large amount of manufacturing employment  But GDP went up because companies now more high-tech  Need widespread broadband to continue this growth  Need connection through internet to communicate with other companies to stay competitive - Policy requirements for widespread broadband: o Broadband is form of infrastructure o Already high cost needs for infrastructure in NC  Highways  Water availability o Should invest ~$10 million per year in internet/broadband o Federal level:  Connect for America: pushing broadband throughout country  Prices lower  Low standards  Most funding went to large telecom companies  Puts rural communities at competitive disadvantage - Need to think regionally: o Overcome cooperation challenges across regions o Low-income rural communities clustered in NE and SE NC  Must figure out how to connect these areas with helpful policy - North Carolina’s Broadband Infrastructure o Funded by General Assembly last year o What they do:  Policy/planning: strategy guidance  Technical assistance services: help rural communities plan/implement  Coordinate state infrastructure resources o FirstNetNC: 4G wireless data network for emergency responders and weather alerts in places where it is lacking o First ever state broadband plan  Contains 80 suggestions o Have high access in NC- many have access to internet  Problem is with adoption of it o Key issues:  Telehealth  Homework gap: K-12 students who don’t have home internet access, but still required to do online homework  Better public safety/first responder connection  Broadband as an economic development strategy  Encourage/incentivize adoption of broadband o Found that connectivity isn’t always about wealth and density, but having a plan and follow-through o Wi-Fi to-go: can check out hotspots for 3 weeks at Orange County Public Library for free  Now implemented in more areas o Need better data to determine needs and where broadband is lacking  Determine what places need what services o Way to improve access: catalogue infrastructure projects that require digging and partner to share cost of installing broadband at same time  Must of cost associated with implementing broadband is from digging for installation


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