ENEC 201 WEek 8 Notes: 10/10/16-10/14/16
ENEC 201 WEek 8 Notes: 10/10/16-10/14/16 ENEC 201
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENEC 201 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by GANGI,GREGORY J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY in Environment and Ecology at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
ENEC 201 Week 8 Notes: 10/10/16-10/14/16 10/10/16 - Green Revolution: move from subsistence farming to large-scale agriculture o Pros greatly outweigh cons because would have experienced mass starvation o Cons: Increased chemical use Poor farmers can’ t compete with wealthy, big farms Ruralurban migration when no money for poor farmers, but no jobs in cities either Environmental damage Power in the hands of few large agriculture companies - Threats of food security: o Climate change: Shifting climate zones: more places will be unfit to produce crops- countries capable of producing may no longer be able to and countries without proper infrastructure will be forced to produce Unpredictable weather: unable to prepare for droughts or floods increased crop failure Will cause fluctuations in global food prices, which is a huge deal for the poor Increased natural disasters: inflict damage on crops and infrastructure Sea level rise: lose a lot of necessary farmland- less crops can be produced Grain production: rising temperatures stop reproduction of grains Stop reproducing at certain temperature Must start producing crops that can withstand higher temperatures Increased tempsmore generations of pests in single growing season Will increase reliance on/necessity of pesticides Pathogens flourish in warmer temps- increased risk of disasters like Irish Potato Famine o Depleted fisheries: Fish faster than populations able to replenish Ocean acidification: affects coral reefs and shell fish Disrupts ocean ecosystem Increases jellyfish populations because survive better in acidic water Increased mercury accumulation From burning of coal Better technology increases accuracy faster depletion ,difficult to control amount Bottom trawling destroys ocean habitats o Deadzones along coast o Climate change as threat to national security People in poor countries will want to migrate to countries with more wealth or with better access to food o Soil degradation through erosion, runoff, overexploitation o Poor infrastructure Difficult to store food surplus - Food waste from improper storage/transportation 10/12/16 - Increased drought from climate change projected to fall on places with high crop production - Peak oil: marks when humans have used half of world oil, from time of peak oil and beyond, production decreases o Difficult to determine exactly when this is because new oil resources being discovered (ex. Tar sands, fracking) - Role of oil in food: o Transportation- food miles o Used to create fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides o Used in production of feed for livestock o Machinery on farms that increase production - Oil markets unstable o Lack of transparency: countries aren’t always upfront about how much oil they have o Cartel of oil-producing countries control prices - Natural gas price increases nitrogen fertilizer price increases - Peak phosphorus: o Most phosphate found concentrated in Morocco o Have to mine it o One single country has ability to determine global price o Dwindling supplies o Phosphate also found in human waste and animal manure - Threats to food security: o Demographic changes o Poverty o Lack of investment in infrastructure technology o Climate change, etc. - Must respond to food insecurity now, not when consequences are in full effect - Must increase agricultural productivity to address problems - Solutions to coming famine: no one single answer, should be a combination of labor-intensive and capital-intensive factors o GMO’s: polarizing solution (either love it or hate it) Pros: Protect against drought, pests, and other challenges while decreasing environmental impact (less need for pesticides or water input) Increase nutrition better public health and food security, less micronutrient deficiencies o Ex. Golden Rice: incorporates beta carotene, which protect against blindness from micronutrient deficiencies Protects against large-scale crop failure due to monoculture/industrial agriculture- fixes problem quicker Extend food life Increase yield/production Adapt to climate change consequences (drought, floods, high winds, etc.) Cons: Using same genetic variety can increase risk of widespread crop failure Possibility of increased allergens: associated with cleaner environment and more perfect foods, bodies begin to see harmless things as harmful because haven’t experienced them Control of seeds by few large companies: hurts small farmers Unknown future environmental impact: GMO’s exist under optimal conditions o Difficult to survive if introduced in the wild Ethical objections: humans playing God and shouldn’t do that 10/14/16 - Economic development of rural areas- goal of Roanoke Energy Cooperative o Makes businesses competitive in larger market - Roanoke Energy cooperative is an energy provider, so many think it’s strange that they are supplying broadband o Someone needs to do it - Economic geography matters o Originally thought that internet would make all areas essentially equal with all the same opportunities o Didn’t play out that way- rural communities commonly disconnected Many rural communities chose to use resources for other interests/priorities - NC is growing- becoming urban/modern community o But rural population is large nd o 2 largest rural population in country - Broadband implications: o Education: switch to digital textbooks Without broadband, difficult for rural youth to do homework Shouldn’t be put at competitive disadvantage o Healthcare: many rural hospitals on shaky financial grounds Telemedicine- regionalization of healthcare High speed broadband important to increase quality of healthcare system o Manufacturing: NC lost large amount of manufacturing employment But GDP went up because companies now more high-tech Need widespread broadband to continue this growth Need connection through internet to communicate with other companies to stay competitive - Policy requirements for widespread broadband: o Broadband is form of infrastructure o Already high cost needs for infrastructure in NC Highways Water availability o Should invest ~$10 million per year in internet/broadband o Federal level: Connect for America: pushing broadband throughout country Prices lower Low standards Most funding went to large telecom companies Puts rural communities at competitive disadvantage - Need to think regionally: o Overcome cooperation challenges across regions o Low-income rural communities clustered in NE and SE NC Must figure out how to connect these areas with helpful policy - North Carolina’s Broadband Infrastructure o Funded by General Assembly last year o What they do: Policy/planning: strategy guidance Technical assistance services: help rural communities plan/implement Coordinate state infrastructure resources o FirstNetNC: 4G wireless data network for emergency responders and weather alerts in places where it is lacking o First ever state broadband plan Contains 80 suggestions o Have high access in NC- many have access to internet Problem is with adoption of it o Key issues: Telehealth Homework gap: K-12 students who don’t have home internet access, but still required to do online homework Better public safety/first responder connection Broadband as an economic development strategy Encourage/incentivize adoption of broadband o Found that connectivity isn’t always about wealth and density, but having a plan and follow-through o Wi-Fi to-go: can check out hotspots for 3 weeks at Orange County Public Library for free Now implemented in more areas o Need better data to determine needs and where broadband is lacking Determine what places need what services o Way to improve access: catalogue infrastructure projects that require digging and partner to share cost of installing broadband at same time Must of cost associated with implementing broadband is from digging for installation
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