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Week 7 Notes Part 1HIST 106

by: Sara_vanae

Week 7 Notes Part 1HIST 106 HIST 106

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Week 7 Notes
History of the US
William Collopy
Class Notes
political, Reform, history, collopy, race, Women, Money
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara_vanae on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 106 at Texas A&M University taught by William Collopy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.

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Date Created: 10/14/16
Political Reforms  Statewide primaries make improvements: o Initiative and referendum o Recall o Popular election of US senators (17 Amendment – 1913)  Used to be legislature appointed senators The Roosevelt Presidency  Powerful executive branch  Supervise (not prohibit) trusts  “Against misconduct not health” o Don’t want people getting wealth by not following the rules  Sherman Anti-trust Act used  Coal strike arbitration  there is a strike o Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle  Roosevelt read it and became concerned for the American people o Legislation on meat, food, and drugs o Environmental protection  Conservation (Gifford Pinchot)  if removed; then replace  Preservation (John Muir)  can’t touch at all  Coal strike arbitration  United Mine Worker, 1902  Army to operate mines  Negotiated  1904 election: “Square Deal” United Sates v. Northern Securities Company *Important Case  Northern Securities Company owns stock in two railroads that were supposed to compete with each other o Created a monopoly o Get sued o Decision: Northern Securities Company has to divest itself of the two competing companies o US/ Roosevelt wins The Roosevelt Presidency and race  Booker T. Washington in White House (1901)  Brownsville, TX racial violence (1906) o Shooting war between he soldiers and white residents o Roosevelt gives the soldiers honorable discharges On the Socio-Political Front *in this time people liked democracy but others wanted to remove it with socialism Socialism Eugene V. Debs  conflicted socialist because she believes the small guy (the worker) is getting screwed; wants a better distribution of resources  Says capitalism works  President, American Railway Union  Social Democratic Party  Some nation following 1908 Election  William Howard Taft (R)  winner  William Jennings Bryan (D)  Eugene V Debs (Socialist) The Taft Presidency  More anti-trust suits than TR  He lacked TR’s charisma  Strengthened ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission)  going against business and those who own the business  He supported: o Corporate profits tax o Personal income tax o Direct election of US senators  Whence came these ideas? The populists  Those with economic power weren’t fond of Taft The 1912 Election  William Howard Taft )R)  Woodrow Wilson (D)  gov’t of New Jersey; from Virginia  Theodore Roosevelt (progressive “Bull moose” party  Eugene V Debs (Social Party) o 900,999  National power for Democrats (the south)  Southern at center of national and international affairs Wilson’s First Term  Opposed federal women’s suffrage amendment  Opposed federal child-labor legislation  Opposed federal loans for farmers  Lower tariffs = lower process  16 amendment raise revenue th  17 amendment: able to elect own US Senators  Federal Trade Commission  Federal Reserve Act (1913) o Disparages National bank so now have central bank Wilson on Race  Considered African-American suffrage to be an error  Re segregated government agencies like the Post Office, Treasury, and Navy Department The Legacy of Progressivism Before: The government is best that governs least (less gov’t) After: Active government on behalf of the public interest Constitutional Amendments  16 (1913) – income tax th  17 (1913) – direct election to senators  18 (1920) – prohibition th  19 (1920) – women’s suffrage Prohibition  Temperance movements th  18 Amendment (1920)  Forbade: o Manufacture o Sale o Transportation Path to War Central Powers (called Triple alliance) o Austria-Hungary o Germany o Turkey o Bulgaria Allied Powers o Serbia o Russia o France o Belgium o Britain o Italy o Japan Neutrals o Spain o Switz Panama Canal Capt. Alfred US Fleet Concept  Two-Ocean navy  Battleships Short Cut Needed USS Oregon Mahan on the Canal *wants a shortcut  Capt. Mahan defines the Caribbean = an American lake  Maneuverability  Cost savings  One-ocean navy…two-ocean commitment o Maybe US can have one fleet; idea would only be temporary because US needed a two fleet navy Suez Canal  Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea  Built from 1859 to 1869  A French man, Ferdinand de Lesseps (France) o Calls up his friends and voices the opportunity for the French to make money o Constructs a sea level canal The Panama Canal  A French failure  1881-1887  Ferdinand de Lesseps  $300,000,000  20,000 lives lost  One-third finished Clayton – Bulwer Treaty (1850)  Between US and Britain  Provision: No “exclusive control” o They will be partners  Neutral canal  No occupation, fornication or colonization Hay – Pauncefote Treaty (1901)  Between US and Britain  Diminishing British influence  For Britain, US friendship served as a counterweight to Germany  Canal run solely by US Hay – Herrán Treaty (1903)  US and Colombia  99 year lease in Panama  $10 million + $250,000 per year  Ratified by US Senate  Rejected by Senate of Colombia *Panama at the time was an “unhappy” providence of Colombia New Nation of Panama (1903)  Colombian province with a history of independence movements  US naval presence (USS Nashville) blocked Colombia’s military effort to suppress the revolt Hay – Bunau Varilla Treaty (1903)  US and independent Panama  Terms similar to Hay - Herrán Treaty  Philippe Bunau Varilla was a Frenchman New York Times (Jan 5, 1904)  President justifies course in panama  Special message urges ratification of Canal Treaty  Denies that the Administration encouraged the Revolution  Colombia’s course criticized – Panama’s Independence achieved US in Global Context  Roosevelt’s “Big Stick diplomacy  Taft “dollar diplomacy”  Wilson’s “moral diplomacy”  Marines stayed busy o Dominican Republic o Haiti o Nicaragua  “Yankee Imperialism” US Position  England interfered with US shipments to Germany  US supplies to Allies  US loans to Allies  Condemns German submarine  Outrage: Lusitania (1915) New technology = submarine Germans had the majority of them Lusitania  May 7, 1915  Germany’s warning re: British Waters  New York to Liverpool  Ammunition aboard  German U-boat  1200 lives lost (128 Americans) The Face of War  Machine guns  Land mines  Poison gas  Armored tanks  Aerial bombing  Long-range artillery  Flame throwers  Trench warfare The Face of War (continued)  Military stalemate  1917 – Bolshevik Revolution o Overthrown monarchy  1918 – Treaty of Brest-Litovsk  German spring offensive  US role pivotal in Allied counter-offensive Wilsons 1916 Reelection Motto: “He kept us out of war” The US at War  Unrestricted submarine warfare  ***Zimmermann telegram o Sends it to Mexico o Intercepted by the British o US vessels sunk War: April 2, 1917 Slogans – US at War  “The world must be safe for democracy”  The war to end all wars!” The US at War (continued)  Selective Service Act  White and African American men  Segregated units “Over There” 1917 George M Cohan”  Super patriot US in the War  Began arriving summer 1917  March 1918 German assault  Chateau-Thierry  Belleau Wood  Germans repulsed War and Society  War labor Board  Felix Frankfurter o Want to monitor production; make sure no one is stealing  Unions were  Working men o Immigration down o Men in uniform Loyalty on Trial  Espionage and Sedition (bad mouthing government) Acts of 1917 and 1918 st o Suspending 1 amendment  Criticism outlawed  Eugene V Debs jailed (1918) Women and the War  Bond drives and Red Cross  Army nurse corps  Clerical  Work in industry Great Migration  Chicago Defender  Restricted union membership  Labor Strike  Segregated housing  Riots


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