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Geology 100, Chapter 6-7

by: Sarah Martin

Geology 100, Chapter 6-7 Geology 100

Marketplace > Kansas State University > Geology > Geology 100 > Geology 100 Chapter 6 7
Sarah Martin

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About this Document

Notes that include Study Questions from Chapter 6, and include the first part of Chapter 7.
Geology 100
Sabreen Ata Gad
Class Notes
Geology, 100, Chapter, 6, Kansas State
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Martin on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geology 100 at Kansas State University taught by Sabreen Ata Gad in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Geology 100 in Geology at Kansas State University.

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Date Created: 10/14/16
10/10 Composite volcano: eruption column; pyroclastic flows; landslides and mud flow; lava flow Composite volcano rock types: various types of ash, lava, mudflows; andesite; tephra from eruption column; tuff from pyroclastic flows; mudflow deposits (lahars) Examples: mount fuji, mount etna, mount kilimanjaro Volcanic domes: rubbly appearance; ex: valley of 10,000 smokes, AK; partially eroded domes; formed by magma chamber causing it to grow out and up as magma appears to cool or grows from the inside as magma in injected into the interior of dome and grow as magma leaks out the sides; destroyed by steep flanks collapse or explosions from gas buildup inside Rocks associated with volcanic domes: felsic composition, obsidian; volcanic breccia from breakup of flowing lava and collapse; tuff and volcanic breccia associated with dome collapse Ex: mount unzen, Japan - pyroclastic flow from dome collapse; destruction after eruption Valles Caldera: central depression surrounded by steep walls; low areas that collect sediment and ash; small mountains inside caldera are domes Formation of a caldera: magma coming to surface; magma seeps through the crust; magma bursts through the surface; area sinks or collapses the roof of the magma chamber How to determine danger posed by this volcano: shape, rock types, age Oceanic calderas: subduction related or over hot spots 10/12 Chapter 6 cont. Shield volcanos: HI and the Galapagos Composite volcanos Calderas: subduction related or over hot spot Composite, basalt flow, scoria cones How we monitor volcanos: seismic device to measure increased seismic activity; increased gas activity; changes in topography; changes in temperature Mount Rainier: most recent eruption 1820; composite volcano; lava is composed of viscous material STUDY QUESTIONS 6 Chapter 7: Importance of studying rocks: important clues to the history of the continents and the earth's climate history (warming or cooling); important clues to the history of life (fossils); contain much of the earth's important and valuable natural resource deposits (oil, natural gas) Processes involved in formation of sedimentary rocks: weathering, transportation, deposition, lithification (conversion of loose sediment to solid rock by compaction and cementation) 3 types of sedimentary rocks: clastic (accumulation of clasts); chemical (minerals precipitate from water bodies or many of these form when standing water evaporates, leaving dissolved minerals behind); organic (organic processes) Types of sediments in locations: Lagoon: sand, mud Reef: shallow, clear warm Beach, Delta, Offshore delta, Barrier Island, Coastal dunes, Deep seafloor Tidal flat: sand, mud, evaporite 10/14 CHAP 7 STUDY QUESTIONS You must have preexisting material; it can suffer from physical weathering in these ways: fracturing; frost and mineral wedging; Chemical weathering: dissolution; hydrolysis; oxidation; biological reactions 3 types of sedimentary rocks: clastic, chemical, organic Clastic sediments: size: PIC Sorting: poorly sorted: very fine to larger rocks; moderately sorted: fine and medium sizes (2 sizes); well sorted: all the same size (sand) Shape: angular: mountain slopes; partially rounded; rounded: stream pebbles Controls on size, shape, and sorting: farther from source means rounder and smaller Ex: steepness of slope -> strength of current -> agent of transports Common clastic sedimentary rocks: conglomerate (qz, sand), breccia (angled rocks), sandstone (sand size), shale (mud size) Difference between conglomerate and breccia: conglomerate is more rounded Different types of sandstones: sandstones, quartz sandstone, arkose (25% feldspar grains), graywacke (Qz, Feld, mica) How clastic sediment becomes rock: compaction of sand grains; compaction of clay particles; cementation (cement: calcite, silica, clay minerals, iron oxides)


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