Psych 100 - Learning (Classical and Operant Conditioning)
Psych 100 - Learning (Classical and Operant Conditioning) Psych 100-01 - Introduction to Psychology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Sylvanowicz on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 100-01 - Introduction to Psychology at University of Massachusetts taught by Tammy Rahhal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Learning A definition: any relatively permanent change in behavior produced by experience - can be direct experience (throwing up after working out and eating pizza) - can be indirect experience (watching someone throw up after working out and eating) Associative Learning: -A process in which you form associations between stimuli and other events -By forming associations, we acquire new information and meaning and we behave differently EX: - I press the gas pedal à the car moves forward - I press on the brake pedal à the car stops Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian Conditioning) The unconditioned reflex 1. Dog is hunger 2. Dog sees food 3. Dog salivates Food à Salivation Unconditional Reflex: Food à Salivation (US) (UR) 1. Unconditioned Stimulus (US): (food) the aspect of the environ. that generates a response automatically w/o learning 2. Unconditioned Response (UR): (salivating) the response evoked (not learned) by the US Unconditioned: stimulus and response occur naturally, hard-wired Stimulus: stars the chain Response: ends the chain Unconditioned Reflex: a PRE-EXISTING stimulus response connection 1. Dog is hungry 2. Dog hears bell 3. Dog sees food 4. Dog salivates Bell – Food à Salivation (finally..) Bell à Salivation Conditional Reflex: Bell à Salivation (CS) (CR) 1. Conditioned Stimulus (CS): (bell) some aspect of the environ. that we learn to respond to because it has been associates with an US (food) 2. Conditioned Response (CR): (salivating) the response reliably evoked (learned) by the CS Conditioned: connecting something new with old; US-UR relationship Conditioned Reflex: a NEW stimulus-response connection we created by associating the BELL with SALIVATION Characteristics of UNCONDITIONED Reflex: 1. Innate and unlearned 2. Permanent (usually) 3. All members of the species have it 4. Does not vary from individual to individual VERSUS Characteristics of CONDITIONED Reflex: 1. Not present at birth, instead learned 2. Impermanent (usually) 3. NOT all members of the species have it 4. Varies from individual to individual Three things necessary for CC to occur: 1. An initially neutral stimulus – CS (e.g. bell) 2. A stimulus that reliably elicits a response – US (e.g. food) 3. Contiguity: nearness in TIME and SPACE of the CS and US Everyday Classical Conditioning 1. Survival of the species 2. Pets 3. Advertising – ex. people who see ads with attractive females on then are more attracted to the product and are more likely to purchase it later 4. Emotions – ex. break up; only cry in car when music plays – hears song years later, cries 5. Taste Aversions – ex. Eating ravioli before getting sick, thinking of the food makes you feel sick Key Components of Classical Conditioning 1. Acquisition: training of the new CR 2. Extinction: elimination of a CR 3. Generalization: the tendency to apply what you have learned to new, similar situations o Tammy feels sick around Chef Boyardee Ravioli & other Chef Boyardee products 4. Discrimination: tendency to distinguish between a new situation and the original situation o Tammy does NOT feel sick around homemade Italian food Operant Conditioning – a different learning perspective Why is it hard to study 2 weeks before an exam, but easy to go out and play tennis? Why are some people really good at tennis? - choices made by the learner -deliberate actions, not reflexes -voluntary -goal directed -more complex than salivating to a tone -influenced by consequences Operant Conditioning: 1. The study of how the consequences of voluntary actions and behavior influence these actions and behavior 2. Behavior operates (has an effect) om the environment Thorndike Puzzle Box: Hungry cat is in locked box àHungry cat sees foodàHungry cat goes crazy and eventually hits lever àBox opens & hungry cat gets food (Repeated) By day 7: Hungry cat hits lever right away (Thorndike’s) Law of Effect: 1. Behavior varies. It occurs in a random, trial & error fashion 2. Variation in behavior à pleasurable consequence à more likely to occur in future 3. Variation in behavior à unpleasant consequence à less likely to occur in future Bottom line: 4. Behavior is sensitive to consequences Behavior Consequence Relationships: - Reinforcement: a consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of a behavior o Positive reinforcement: addition of a positive stimulus (consequence) to produce and increase behavior EX: I will give you $10 for every “A” on your report card; you can go to a party if you clean your room o Negative reinforcement: removal of a negative stimulus (consequence) to produce and increase behavior EX: I will remove one chore from your list for every “A” on your report card; time off sentence for good behavior - Punishment: a consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of a behavior o Positive punishment: addition of a negative stimulus (consequence) to eliminate or decrease a behavior EX: a parent spanks child for biting his sister; car sounding an annoying beep when you don’t put on seatbelt o Negative punishment: removal of a positive stimulus (consequence) to eliminate or decrease a behavior EX: a parent takes away a child’s favorite toy when he bites his sister; not getting dessert when you fail a test Reinforcement Types of Reinforcement 1. Primary Reinforcers - Food, water, sex 2. Secondary (conditioned) Reinforcers - Money o Social Reinforcers (a type of secondary reinforcers) - Affection, attention, praise Punishment Avoiding punishment is key to survival GOAL: get behaviors to stop Why punish? 1. Very effective at reducing the punished behavior 2. Very fast at reducing the behavior 3. Proper punishment can produce a permanent elimination of behavior Problems with punishment - Escape (child skips school; suicide) - Aggression (dad yells at son, son bullies classmate) - Abuse How to produce Operant Learning: DEMO - Random luck - Shaping o Shaping by successive approximation: reward behavior for little steps towards the desired end behavior Ex: playing “hot & cold” 3 Stages in Learning New Behaviors Through Operant Conditioning 1. Acquisition: initial learning of the new behavioral unit Ex: leaning Spanish in school 2. Maintenance: how often a learning response is produced and reinforced Ex: speaking Spanish in Spain on semester abroad Not speaking to anyone at all – punishment Someone understanding you – rewarding 3. Extinction: gradual decrease in behavior when reinforcement is removed Ex: back in the USA, slowly forgets Spanish
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