PSY 353 In-Class Notes week 7
PSY 353 In-Class Notes week 7 PSY 353
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney McCourt on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 353 at Cleveland State University taught by Bruner,David C in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Health Pyschology in Pyscology at Cleveland State University.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
PSY 353 In-class Notes Week 7 “Psychological Concepts: Stress” Stressed in-class Historical Evidence ● Beginning of psychological evidence = physiological processes and medical consequences (biomedical model) ● 1960s / 1970s: psychological model of stress (events that cause stress) ○ Selye experiments with rats in differing environments ● Explain individual differences ○ Psychological Models of stress: ■ Transactional process with person vs event (stressor): danger / resource perception & appraisal ● Perceptions= accurate & inaccurate (stress created unnecessarily) ■ Cognitive Appraisal Process ● Primary Appraisal: understanding if demand threatens physical or psychological wellness ● Secondary Appraisal assessing resources to battle stressor Distinction of Different Stresses: Anomalies in Stress ● Traumatic stress: similar impact on most people ● Non-traumatic stress: differing responses for people ○ (no stimulation of Sympathetic Nervous Sys.) ● Daily Hassles: stressors creating stress on daily level Thinking Accurately about Stress ● External events - Internal psychological construction connection ○ Perception (outside / in) ■ Ie: traumatic experience - mind (thinking) creates more stress ● Taking driver's license test - mind chalks it up to be bigger than it is Stress-Related Definitions ● Stressor: external event (stressful event) ○ Stressor => stress ■ Ie: run a 5k (not prepared) => emotional stress “I can’t do it” ○ Physical; environmental; social; psychological events ● Strain: emotion / mental discomfort (unease) due to stressor ○ Lesser than stress ○ No Sympathetic Nervous Sys. Activation ● Stress: internal discomfort ( with Sympathetic Nervous Sys. Activation) ○ Variables in variation: ■ Stressor intens how great is the stress ■ Stressor frequenc how often ■ Stressor duration: whats the time frame ○ Differences in Stress Evidence: ■ Mental health plays a role in increasing / decreasing stress ■ People with experiences have resources to cope ● No negative effects ● Better prepared (control) ● Relationships are critical to help cope with stress ○ Coping with Stress ■ Coping efforts to change / adapt to stressor (goal: stability in health) ● Actively solving problem ● Nutritional support ● Emotion-focused coping (expression of thoughts / emotions ○ ie : talking to someone / journaling ● Social support ● Regular aerobic exercise (deactivates Sympathetic Nervous Sys.) ● Relaxation/ meditation (prayer = peace “mental control”) ● Acceptance / wisdom Measuring Stress ● Reliable research methods ○ Physical arousal (sympathetic activation) ■ Pulse increase; respiration increase; blood pressure rises ■ Polygraph: tracks changes in sympathetic functions over 24 hours ● Ie: EMTs stress with emergency (study's rest time for high stress jobs) ■ Biochemical analyses of blood, urine, saliva ● Measuring hormones (secreted from adrenal glands) ○ Near time life events (stress from events in past) ■ Paper / pencil test (survey) ● Measures stress & predicts accidents / illness ■ Social readjustment scale (clinical experience) ● Negative / positive events (ie: death of spouse, weddings, etc) ● 100-11 points ○ Daily hassles & strain (small amounts of strain effects) Psychological Modifiers ● Personal characteristics that allow survival / managing of serious stress ○ Hardiness: (Salvador Maddi) ability to survive stress ■ 1.) sense of personal control ● Actions affect course of health ■ 2.) purpose in life ● Orient lives towards goals (people / events) ■ 3.) Challenge (changes=growth not threat) ○ Manage stress better ○ Control / commitment = lower mortality rate ○ Resilience: bounce back ability ■ High self esteem (value / positivity) ■ Personal control ■ Optimism ● Better mental / physical / faster recovery
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