ANA109 week 8 lecture notes
ANA109 week 8 lecture notes ANA 109
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ally Merrill on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANA 109 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Platt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
ANA109 Week 8—Unit 2 material (Bones/Muscles) 10/11/16—Joints Joint Joint is the site of articulation: where one bone makes contact with another bone, cartilage, or a tooth o A bone articulates with another bone at a joint Role of Joints Structural o Joints are where the bones and cartilage of the skeletal system are linked together o In general, joints are reinforced by connective tissue Functional o Joints allow for motion of the skeletal system, which in turn allows the body to move through space o In general, muscles contract to produce a movement at a joint Structural and Functional Features of Joints Ligament o A connective tissue band connecting bone to bone across a joint o Reinforces the structure of a joint o Composted of dense regular connective tissue Tendon o A connective tissue band connecting muscle to bone across a joint o Allows for the functional motion of a joint o Composed of dense regular connective Joints are classified structurally and functionally Structural Classification of Joints Fibrous joint o Bones directly joined by dense irregular connective tissue o No synovial cavity Cartilaginous joint o Bones directly joined by cartilage o No synovial cavity Synovial joint o Bones indirectly joined by an articular capsule o The deep surface of the articular capsule is lined by a synovia membrane, forming a synovial cavity filled with synovial fluid Other Synovial Joint Structural Features Capsular ligament o A ligament linking two bones around a synovial joint o Contributes to the articular capsule, a connective tissue sheath surrounding synovial joints o Composed of dense regular connective tissue Intra-Capsular ligament o A ligament found inside the articular capsule o Composed of dense regular connective tissue Meniscus o A supporting structure that partially separates a joint cavity and provides a low-friction surface for articulation o Composed of fibrocartilage Other Synovial Joint Structural Features Bursa o A synovial fluid-filled sac found between muscles/tendons and synovial joints o Functions to cushion synovial joints and reduce friction between muscle/tendons and bone Tendon sheath o Tube-like bursae that surround tendons when passing through potentially high friction regions Clinical Correlate: Bursitis Bursitis is an inflammation of the synovial bursa which leads to redness and swelling. It is commonly caused by acute or chronic trauma For example, prepatellar bursitis is an inflammation of the prepatellar bursa caused by regular and prolonged kneeling Functional Classification of Joints Synarthrosis o Allows for little or no mobility Amphiarthrosis o Allows for slight mobility Diarthrosis o Allows for a range of motion Clinical Correlate: Fontanelles In infants, the skull bones at each suture are not completely mineralized. This allows the skull to expand rapidly during development and to shift during birth, making these structures an amphiarthrosis in infants. These “soft spots”, or fontanelles, are vulnerable to injury. The largest of these, the anterior fontanelle, will not completely close until the second year of life. Clinical Correlate: Intervertebral Disc Herniation The annulus fibrosus can weaken or tear due to a combination of degeneration and trauma. This can cause the nucleus pulposus to bulge against the spinal nerves; causing pain, loss of sensation, weakness, or paralysis. Inflammation of the region can then cause further pain, swelling, and compression of the spinal nerve. This is commonly called a “slipped disc”, but the disc itself remains in place. Stability vs Mobility A mobile joint, such as the shoulder, must sacrifice the stability of bony reinforcements and thick ligaments. Clinical Correlate: Joint Dislocation Mobile joints, such as the shoulder, are more easily dislocated. Shoulder dislocations are the most commonly anterior (the humerus is displaced anteriorly) because of the relative lack of supporting bones, muscles, and ligaments compared to the other borders of the shoulder. Correction of dislocation is called reduction. Subluxation is the incomplete dislocation of a joint Synovial joints are the primary site of motion for the body Types of Anatomical Motion Angular motion o Moving like the hand of a clock Rotational Motion o Moving like a spinning top Special Motion o Specific to certain joints Anatomical terms of motion—Angular Motion Sagittal Plane o Flexion: a decrease in angle between a segment and its proximal segment o Extension: an increase in angle between a segment and its proximal segment Coronal Plane o Abduction: movement away from the midline o Adduction: movement towards the midline o Lateral Flexion: a decrease in angle between a segment and its proximal segment in the lateral direction Only used to describe the spine Circumduction: circular movement, a combination of several individual movements Anatomical terms of motion—Rotational Motion Medial rotation: rotation towards the midline o Aka Internal Rotation Lateral rotation: rotation away from the midline o Aka External Rotation Anatomical terms of motion—Special Motions Gliding motions—used to describe mandible and scapula Elevation o Movement in the superior direction Depression o Movement in the inferior direction Protraction o Movement in the anterior direction Retraction o Movement in the posterior direction Terms used to describe the foot: Inversion o Twisting towards the midline Eversion o Twisting away from the midline Dorsiflexion o Flexing superiorly Plantarflexion o Flexing inferiorly Terms used to describe the forearm: Pronation o Twisting medially Supination o Twisting laterally “Holding a bowl of soup” 10/13/16 Types of Synovial Joints Hip articulation of the femur with the os coxa (hip bone) ball-and-socket joint largest and most stable diarthrosis in the body movements: flexion, extension, medial rotation, lateral rotation, abduction, adduction, circumduction Clinical Correlate: Osteoarthritis the articular cartilage of a joint can erode away in cases of chronic wear and tear coupled with inflammation and genetic factors. This condition is called osteoarthritis. Bone that is then exposed in a joint can be ground away, causing pain and reducing mobility. The hip is a commonly involved joint in osteoarthritis, in part because of its load-bearing role Knee articulation of the femur with the tibia (and the patella) hinge joint reinforced by several ligaments and supported by two menisci movements: flexion, extension Clinical Correlate: ACL injury the knee is vulnerable to many forms of traumatic injury. A classic sports injury is an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) sprain resulting from hyperextension and medial rotation of the knee with a planted foot. One sign indicative of an ACL injury is an anterior drawer sign, where it is possible to pull the tibia of a flexed knee anteriorly Ankle Primarily the articulation of the tibia and fibula with the talus (a tarsal bone), as well as tarsals with tarsals. Primarily a hinge joint Supported by many ligaments Movements: dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion Clinical Correlate: Strains and Sprains Sprain = injury to a ligament Strain = injury to a muscle or tendon Sprains of the various ligaments of the ankle are common, especially the ligaments on the lateral side. This is because the ankle is not supported medially by the fibula, so the foot is more likely to be twisted medially. Such an injury commonly sprains the anterior talofibular ligament (ATL). Foot a combination of many joints between the tarsals and metatarsals, metatarsals and phalanges, and phalanges and phalanges movements: flexion, extension, abduction and adduction of the digits Note: Arches of the Foot the foot normally displays several arches due to the angle at which the tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges meet. These arches provide stability to the foot when standing and are supported by tendons, ligaments, and bony features. Clinical Correlate: Gout In gout, uric acid crystals (a byproduct of metabolism) accumulate in the joints, particularly the first metatarsophalangeal joint (proximal joint of the big toe). These uric acid crystal deposits are called tophi. Gout can be extraordinarily painful. Some patients are unable to sleep with a blanket over their feet, because the sensation of the blanket resting on their tophi is too painful. Shoulder The articulation of the humerus with the scapula is called the glenohumeral joint Ball and (very shallow) socket joint Other joints can be considered part of the shoulder girdle, including the clavicle with the scapula, the clavicle with the sternum, and even the scapula with the rib cage Movements: flexion, extension, medial rotation, lateral rotation, abduction, adduction, and circumduction Clinical Correlate: Glenoid Labrum Tear The glenoid cavity of the scapula is surrounded by a fibrocartilage brim called the glenoid labrum (sometimes the glenoid ligament). This brim provides some slight stabilization of the glenohumeral joint without the reduced mobility of a bony structure. The glenoid labrum can be torn in a traumatic shoulder injury, such as a dislocation Elbow Primarily the articulation of the humerus with the ulna Hinge joint The ulna securely wraps around the humerus with the olecranon process, while the radius is held lightly against the humerus and is free to rotate. This is critical for supination and pronation Motions: flexion, extension, pronation, and supination “Clinical” Correlate: The Funny Bone The funny bone is not, in fact, a real bone. Instead when someone hits their funny bone they are pinching the ulnar nerve, which crosses the elbow superficial to the humerus. This causes the sensation of numbness and tingling in the forearm and hand. Wrist Primarily the articulation of the radius with the carpal bones, as well as carpal bones with other carpal bones Primarily a condyloid joint (think oval ball and socket) The ulna does not directly articulate in the wrist Motions: flexion, extension, abduction and adduction Clinical Correlate: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome The tendons that control flexion of the digits as well as the nerve providing sensation to much of the had run through a narrow “tunnel” made by the carpal bones of the wrist. Prolonged movement of the tendons in combination with pressure against the anterior wrist compresses these nerves, leading to numbness and pain This condition is common in desk workers and musicians who use their hands against hard surfaces for extended periods. Hand A combination of many joints between the carpals and metacarpals, metacarpals and phalanges, and phalanges and phalanges Motions: flexion, extension, abduction and adduction of the digits Clinical Correlate: Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of certain joints in the body, commonly including the interphalangeal joints of the hand. This inflammation causes redness, warmth, swelling, and severe pain. Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis may have reduced use of their joints Unique Joints Atlanto-Axial Joint Joint between C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis) vertebrae The dens of the axis projects superiorly while the atlas wraps around the dens, forming a pivot joint Motions: rotation of the head Temporomandibular Joint Joint between the temporal bone of the skull and the mandible Two synovial cavities are separated by an articular disc, making a hinge joint and a plane joint Movements: elevation, depression, protraction, and retraction of the mandible Sacroiliac Joint Articulation between the sacrum and the os coxa Synovial plane joint Very stable joint reinforced by many ligaments and bony features Movements: shock absorption, slight shifts in the pelvic girdle Facet Joint Aka zygapophysial joints Joints between the articular processes of adjacent vertebrae Each facet joint is a small synovial plane joint Movements: flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral flexion of the spine