ARTH 430 Week 7 Notes
ARTH 430 Week 7 Notes ARTH 430
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tia Goebel on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 430 at Montana State University taught by Dr. Todd Larkin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see 19th Century Art History in ARTH - Art History at Montana State University.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
ARTH 430 Week 7, Notes from Wednesday, October 12 I. Bourbon Restoration 1814/15 – 1830 II. Louis XVIII’s “Cult[ural] Politics I. Bourbon Restoration - The Bourbon family was restored because they thought it would bring peace to France -Under King Louis XVIII – restored the principle of divine right, but knew that things couldn’t go back to the way things were, restored religion (Roman Catholic), banking/land distribution systems stayed, only wealthy white men got to vote, delegated some power… - Louis had to work with different political sides: radical ultra-royalist (right) vs. (motley crew, no cohesion) Constitutional (left) - Louis XVIII ended up mediating the wants of these two groups, was kind of in the middle, not AS tyrannical before The Public Eye - Public didn’t understand by the gov. and religion were being imposed on them forcefully once again - Didn’t understand the ‘legitimacy’ of the Bourbon family P.-J.-B. Guerin, Louis XVIII, Salon of 1819 We can see the similarities between this and: F. Gerard, Emperor Napoleon, 1806 And The Map of Europe is Redrawn… Napoleon defeated twice by Prussia, Russia, Austria, Britain Louis SVI Comte de Provence Artois Congress of Vienna denies Napoleon’s boarders New ‘French’ Government has two groups: Chamber of Peers and Deputies That was historical account. Now on to culture of the time… II. Louis XVIII’s “Cult[ural] Politics J.-D. Dugourc, Funeral Mass for Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette at Saint-Denis, 1816 Had to get the bodies of Louis XVI and Marie from a huge pit-grave By rumor, they had to trust the word of locals Started digging “for a chocolate chip in the pudding” (- Todd Larkin) Bodies found with hundreds of others An official day of public mourning was created on January 21 (the day the king was murdered before) The ceremonies involved were very fire and brimstone – religious fervor Louis XVI compared to Christ and the funeral was completed Members of his family were also re-celebrated/forgiven Dugourc, Transfer of the Royal Remains to Saint-Denis, 21 January 1815 Dugourc’s engravings (I believe), illustrated for us the massive amount of people that flocked these ceremonies Extremely elaborate Louis XVIII had a budget set aside for exquisite art, palaces, and architecture.. The Chapelle Expiatoire Pierre – Francois – Leonard Fontaine, Chapelle Expiatoire or Chapelle Louis XVI, 1816-26, Square Louis XVI, Rue d’Anjou Built based on a pagan style, Louis liked Neoclassical (progressive) styles, like Napoleon Paid for by the king, 2 million francs, 10 years Fontaine was hated by the public for desecration of graves – King purchased this land because it is where the Louis and Antoinette’s bodies were found, and Fontaine was forced to build here Fontaine constructed a fence around, eventually, so the people walking by wouldn’t see the piles of bones Aediculae – from Roman religion, meaning a small shrine Peristyle – column/cubed porch Crypt underneath Two arcades, cloister in the center, king’s regiments in the special spaces on the sides Small, eerie inside (dank) Bosio, was the sculptor, some of his work is inside (worked for Napoleon, but kept around for Louis XVIII) F. –J. Bosio, Louis XVI Ascending to Heaven, 1824 Cross running through the limbs of the figures Martyr Portrait of person that actually stood with Louis at the guillotine J. –P. Cortot, Marie-Antoinette Comforted by Religion, 1824 Not liked by her brother in law Not saved Portrayed as a mess Marie was accused of all kinds of crimes and indecencies when she was alive Her she is portrayed as the one that needs forgiveness More on the site itself… In this space, center point underneath dome, where they found Louis’s head and point where the alter is – where they found Marie Coffers have Bourbon lilies (seen above Marie) Site at an angle because of where the bodies were found (weird site plan) L.-T. Turpin de Crisee, Service Held in the Chapelle Expiatoire, 1835. Painting of what the space would have been like in service Staircases to the crypt Alter in the crypt for Marie The bodies of Louis XVI and Marie have been moved to: Sainte-Denis, Paris, ca. 1180 Burial place of the French kings Many cult “relics” from the temple prison were saved The Bourbon government sent out ridiculous bids for finding objects owned by the old royal family Side stories… E. Gaulle and Petitot, Louis XVI and Marie- Antoinette, 1819, rejected grave markers, Sainte-Denis Rejected grave markers And…Louis XVIII paid a large sum for Brun to surrender her painting of Marie to him. Brun painted a lot of paintings of Marie after she died. More on Louis XVIII and his imagery… Louis Hersent, Louis XVI Distributing Alms to the Poor During the Severe Winter of 1788, Salon of 1817 Seen with villagers that he precedes over Posed like a Ceasar Showing humanitarian aid Giving out money Gesture of blessing Child with clogs clinging to royal figure Influences: (See Durameau) helping the poor (See Gros, Napoleon in the Pesthouse at Jaffa, as well) Roi thurmaturge – healing touch LOUIS XVI (depicted) is given the facial features of his newly crowned brother, LOUIS XVIII ….if Louis XVI is “Christ” who is the “Virgin Mary”? Madame Elisabeth, Louis XVIII’s sister. Fleury Richard, Madame Elisabeth Distributing Milk at her estate in Montreuil, Salon of 1819 Subsidizes the convent Comes out from her big house and helps the orphans Two court ladies attend her She is holy lit up with light through the umbrella Thirds (like Gros at Jaffa) Church and monarchy working together for the good of everyone Sister of Louis XVIII Influence: (L. Durameau, St. Louis Washing the Feet of the Poor, 1773) Chateaubriand, Genius of Christianity, (1801) Art, like religion, is about emotional connection If Louis = Christ, Elisabeth = Virgin Mary, then Marie-Antoinette = penitent Mary Magdalene Alexandre Menjaud, The last Moments of the Duc de Berry, 1820. In the back room of a opera house Citizenry feel like a penance is being pushed onto them Five years later…someone stabs the Duc de Berry, who didn’t agree with his uncle (the king) Political divisions becoming violent Led to the murder of king’s nephew Wife had a ‘miracle child’ (didn’t know she was pregnant when her husband died) (Comparable to how the Battle of Eylau was used??) – maybe! King Louis XVIII embracing the tragedy J. –A. –D. Ingres, Vow of Louis XIII, 1824. (Louis XVIII has passed on at this point) Commissioned by the mayor of Montauban, South France Tying the mayor to Virgin Mary Louis XVIII is praying for peace In return for peace, would have a celebration on assumption day, make a special point to honor Virgin Mary in France Divided in half – so Ingres did not like this painting Ingres wasn’t even living in France at this time, needed the money, needed the publicity, so he did the commission What did people think of it? Popular in the press, but people hated it…goes back to imposing a religious penance on the people Government loved it – classical Perfect metaphor for the relationship between gov and religion (union between throne and altar) Ingres declared a legion of honor for this painting, declared a Neoclassical master Used by ultra loyalists …yes, lots of religious, royalist art…