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Intro to Sociology: You May Ask Yourself Chapter 6- Deviance

by: Leah Notetaker

Intro to Sociology: You May Ask Yourself Chapter 6- Deviance SOC 101- 406 (, Peter Hart-Brinson)

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire > SOC 101- 406 (, Peter Hart-Brinson) > Intro to Sociology You May Ask Yourself Chapter 6 Deviance
Leah Notetaker

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These notes cover the sixth chapter of You May Ask Yourself by Dalton Conley. Topics covered include social deviance, theories, social forces which may cause deviance, crime, and how suicide may be...
Intro to Sociology
Peter K. Hart-Brinson
Class Notes
sociology, Introduction to Sociology, deviance, crime, social forces
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leah Notetaker on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 101- 406 (, Peter Hart-Brinson) at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Peter K. Hart-Brinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views.

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Date Created: 10/14/16
YOU MAY ASK YOURSELF CHAPTER 6 What is Social Deviance?  Social Deviance- any transgression of socially established norms; minor and major  Crime- violation of laws enacted by society  What counts as deviance varies across contexts and cultures. o (ex. premarital sex)  Deviance may lead to social change. o (ex. desegregation) Approaches to Social Deviance  Functionalist Approach o Social Cohesion- social bonds; how well people relate to each other, get along on day-to-day basis; two types  Mechanical/ Segment Solidarity- social cohesion based on sameness  Organic Solidarity- social cohesion based on different and interdependence of the parts of society o Premodern society ran mostly by means of sameness. (ex. farmers) o Modern society is more industrialized and relies on specialization. o When an individual deviates from society, it offends the collective conscience of the group, and society must repair the gap, or chaos will ensue. Social Control  Social Control- mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals; two types o Formal Social Sanctions- rules and laws that prohibit deviant criminal behavior (ex. state laws, police) o Informal Social Sanctions- unexpressed but widely known rules of group membership; often unspoken (ex. neighborhood watch group)  Both types heavily rely on the other to succeed. Normative Theory of Suicide  Is suicide an act of deviance?  Emile Durkheim combined psychological and social forces to explain suicide rates. o Social Integration- how well one is integrated into a social group or community; tight knit o Social Regulation- the number of rules guiding daily life and what can be expected from the world on a day-to-day basis  To be at low suicide risk, one must be integrated with rules, as long as the rules are not oppressive.  To go too far in either direction (high or low) increases the risk of suicide. Types of Suicide  Egoistic Suicide- suicide that occurs when one is not well-integrated into a social group  Altruistic Suicide- suicide that occurs when one experiences too much social integration o (ex. disgraced samurai warriors)  Anomic Suicide- suicide that occurs as a result of insufficient social regulation o Anomie- sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable; too little social regulation o Many businessmen committed suicide for this reason when the stock markets crashed in 1929.  Fatalistic Suicide- suicide that occurs as a result of too much social regulation o (ex. prisoners and slaves) Social Forces and Deviance  Strain Theory- deviance occurs when society does not give all of its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals  Conformist- individual who accepts both the goals and strategies to achieve that are considered socially acceptable o (ex. go to college, follow American Dream)  Ritualist- individual who rejects socially defined goals but not the means  Innovator- social deviant who accepts socially acceptable goals but rejects socially acceptable means to achieve them  Retreatist- one who stops participating in society  Rebel- one who rejects traditional goals and means; wants to alter or destroy social institutions from which he or she is alienated Symbolic Interactionist Theories of Deviance  Meanings individuals bring to their actions; particulars of a social context; micro  Labeling Theory- belief that individuals subconsciously notice how others see or label them, and their reactions to those labels over time form the basis of self-identity o Social groups create deviance: setting the right and wrong rules, and labeling wrongdoers as outsiders. o We become deviant only in interaction with other social actors.  (ex. marijuana smoking pleasant through social processes/allure)  After labeling, people are treated and thought of differently. o Primary Deviance- first act of rule breaking that may incur a label of “deviant” and thus influence how people think about and act toward you o Secondary Deviance- subsequent acts of rule breaking that occur after primary deviance and as a result of one’s new deviant label and people’s expectations of you, leading to… o Stigma- negative social label that not only changes others’ behaviors toward a person but also alters that person’s own self- concept and social identity  (ex. mental illness, criminal record, race)  Broken Windows Theory of Deviance- explains how social context and cues impact whether individuals act deviantly; whether local, informal social norms allow deviant acts Crime  Crime is a form of deviance, yet it is far more complex than violence or drug use. o Street Crime- crime committed in public; associated with violence, gangs, and poverty o White Collar Crime- offense committed by professional(s) against a corporation, agency, or other institution  Crimes include deceit, concealment, and violation of trust o Corporate Crime- a type of white collar crime committed by the officers (CEO or executives) or a corporation  (ex. covering up losses) Deviance in Society  Deviance has always been present and always will be; varies across cultures.  The crime rate changes in response to fluctuation in how society classifies and reacts to deviance.  Murder is the best indicator of crime rates, even if it is not immune to changes as well. Crime Reduction  Deterrence Theory- philosophy of criminal justice arising from the notion that crime results from a rational calculation of its costs and benefits o (ex. harsher penalties for distributing drugs = not worth doing it)  Yet deterrence may actually lead to more crime.  Recidivism- when an individual who has been involved with the criminal justice system reverts to criminal behavior o Increased supervision and paroles increases the changes of committing technical violations of parole. o Prison may not help either.  (ex. life completely changes, little rehab for substance abuse) o Prison may socialize new criminal peers, causing shifts in behavior.  Total Institution- one is totally immersed in an institution that controls day-to-day life basics under one authority o No individual control of activities, always with the same group of people. o Strips away usual roles, eventually the sense of freedom, the self, etc. The Modern Prison  Modern punishment targets the soul instead of the body o Social workers, psychologists, and criminologists analyze and correct individual behaviors. o Paroles are assigned to help guide one’s reentry into the community or society.  Panopticon- circular building composed of inner and outer rings designed to serve as a prison in which guards can watch prisoners without their knowledge Problems In America’s Prisons  American incarceration rates are at an all-time high due to tougher penal codes and the War on Drugs.  Racial discrimination is an issue. o (ex. Blacks and Hispanics are more likely to be jailed and given harsher punishments than Caucasians.)  The debate over the death penalty is still ongoing. While it is illegal in some states, it still continues in others.


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