CH 221 Lecture Notes: Week 3
CH 221 Lecture Notes: Week 3 CHEM 221
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adeline Fecker on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 221 at University of Oregon taught by Deborah Exton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 221 in Chemistry at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Adeline Fecker October 11th, 2016 CH 221 Lecture Notes Week 3 Exam Next Week Ionic Compounds: ❖ Form crystal lattice structure ❖ Exchange of electrons ❖ Ions lose/gain electrons so they have same electrons as the nearest noble gas ❖ Written as cation followed by anion ❖ Electrically neutral ❖ Simplest whole number combination ❖ There are no discrete molecules in ionic compounds ➢ Simplest ratio called formula unit Ex. NaCl Naming binary ionic compounds: ❖ Metal +nonmetal(ide) ❖ Sodium Chlori de ❖ No numerical prefixes because they can be derived easily ❖ For ions with possibly more than 1 charge represent it with roman numerals Ex. Iron(III) oxide or Iron(II) oxide Polyatomic Ions: ❖ Atoms that are covalently bonded to each other ❖ Stay together as a charged unit ❖ When 2 or more polyatomic ions are present the subscript goes outside parenthesis Ex. (CO₃)₂ ❖ No way to predict them at this point ❖ Have to memorize Hydrates: ❖ Ionic compounds that include water ❖ Specific number of water molecules per formula unit ❖ Indicated by raised dot followed by number of water molecules ❖ Water is loosely bonded and can be driven off by heat. Ex. Sodium Chloride tetrahydrate (4 water molecules) Covalently Bonded Compounds ❖ Electrons are shared ❖ Nonmetal+nonmetal ❖ Molecules are formed Optimum Distance ❖ Protons are still repelled ❖ Electrons are shared between protons Naming requires prefixes Acids ❖ H+ and an anion ❖ As many H+ needed to neutralize the charge ❖ Formula always starts with hydrogen Binary Acids ❖ Hydrogen plus element ❖ Ex. HCl Oxoacids ❖ Hydrogen+ polyatomic Naming (Binary) ❖ Hydro+ anion root + ic ❖ Ex. Hydrochlori c Acid ❖ Hydrofluoric acid Naming (Oxoacids) ❖ Ate----- ic ❖ Ite----- ous ❖ NO HYDRO Organic Molecules: ❖ Carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen and sometimes oxygen and nitrogen ❖ Has own system of naming Hydrocarbons Ex. CH4 Methane Alkanes Meth-----1 carbon Eth------2 carbon Prop-----3 carbon But------4 carbon Pent-----5 arbon When you add functional group + ending ol Ethanol (C2H6O) Molecular/Formula mass ❖ Add all the atomic masses (amu) in the molecule Stoichiometry ● Look at quantitative relationships in chemistry Mole is the counting unit between macroscopic and microscopic world Mol= mass/molar mass 1 mol= 6.022x10^23 particles/atoms Mass of a single atom in ANU is equal to mass in grams of 1 mol g=mL in volume calculations Clicker Questions: 1. Name these molecules HBr----- hydrobromic acid (binary acid) AlCl3----Aluminum chloride (ionic compound) NF3-----Nitrogen trifluoride (covalent compound) Cu₂S----Copper(I) sulfide (transition metal ionic compound) 2. HOw many moles are in 52.06g of CO₂ Moles= mass/MM MM= 1(12.01)+ 2(16.00) MM= 44.01 Moles= 52.06g/44.01 g per mol Moles= 1.183mol
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