Thursday 10/13/16 Lecture Notes
Thursday 10/13/16 Lecture Notes PSYC 1301
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Izabella Brock on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Zarate in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at El Paso.
Reviews for Thursday 10/13/16 Lecture Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/14/16
PSYC 1301 Occt133,20016 Lecture Notes Class Info: th th § Sona credits (3) needed by tomorrow (14 ) if you want to receive your 4 credit for free § Mid-term grades have not been posted to calculate yours add your grades up and divide by the total number of points possible Class Notes: § Bilingualism o Typically, one language is dominant o As compared to monolinguals, bilinguals: § Have delayed knowledge of syntactical rules § Exhibit heightened awareness of language structure and usage (metalinguistic ability) o If second language is learned early, the two languages use similar brain structures § Second Language Learning and Critical Periods o Evidence that younger children are superior to adults at learning language: § Fluency failures of language-deprived children (e.g., Genie) § Immigrants who arrived in the U.S. after age 7 were less proficient English speakers (especially for syntax and pronunciation) § Rare cases of deprived children show they rarely learn language well § Language Influences Thinking o Linguistic Determinism: Whorf (1956) suggested that language determines the way we think. For example, he noted that the Hopi people do not have the past tense for verbs. Therefore, the Hopi cannot think readily about the past § Linguistic Determinism o Language determines how we think o See Image: § Left three colors are “green” § Right three colors are “blue” § Some people will have an individual name for each color (e.g. turquoise, sky blue, etc.) § Linguistic Determinism o Inuits’ many words for snow o Helen Keller’s reports of absence of though before learning language o Infantile amnesia § Evidence against: PSYC 1301 Occt 13,,20166 Lecture Notes • Preventing covert speech via paralysis (drug-induced) does not prevent thought • Children solve complex cognitive tasks before developing speech • Neuroimaging – language areas are active only during certain, not all, cognitive tasks § Definition of Intelligence: Beyond the Test? o Intelligence. Whether it’s math ability or a rainforest dweller’s understanding of plants, as the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. § But what is intelligence? o Is intelligence one factor, or many? o If many, what are they? o Do you have a really smart friend who drives home drunk? o Or worse yet, texts while driving? o Are you particularly smart, but cant remember where you parked your car? § This is why some people park in the same spot every day to avoid the challenges § Contemporary Intelligence Theories o Howard Gardener (1983,1999) supports the idea that intelligence comes in multiple forms. Gardner notes that brain damage may diminish one type of ability but not others § People with savant syndrome excel in abilities unrelated to general intelligence § General Intelligence o The idea that general intelligence (g) exists comes from the work of Charles Spearman (1863-1945) who helped develop the factor analysis approach in statistics. § General Intelligence o Spearman proposed that general intelligence (g) is linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by factor analysis o For example, people who do well on vocabulary examinations do well on paragraph comprehension examinations, a cluster that helps define verbal intelligence. Other factors include a spatial ability factor, or a reasoning ability factor § Sternberg’s Intelligence Triarchy o Robert Sternberg (b. 1949) proposed that ‘success” in life is related to three types of ability § Practical intelligence: expertise and talent that help to complete the tasks and manage the complex challenges of everyday life § Analytical intelligence: solving a well-defined problem with a single answer § Creative intelligence: generating new ideas to help adapt to novel situations § Sternberg continued. PSYC 1301 Occtt13,,20016 Lecture Notes o Ability to automize task performance to make repeated tasks easier. Thus preforming simple tasks faster and more efficiently free up resources to complete other tasks § How many try to park in the same spot? § Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence – these definitions are not in the book o Raymond Cattell (1971) distinguished two types of intelligence § Fluid Intelligence – the capacity to learn new problems § Crystallized Intelligence – the accumulated knowledge of the world over time o Fluid abilities are more related to g and are more likely to decline with age o Some of the stereotypes are true. Your 12 year old niece/nephew will probably learn how to use the remote better than your 72 year old aunt/uncle § Can we measure intelligence? o Principle of test construction o For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill the following three criteria: § Standardization § Reliability § Validity § Standardization o Standardizing a test involves administering the test to a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis for meaningful comparison § Normal Curve o Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of scored on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve o Image of the normal curve § Reliability o A test is reliable when it yields consistent results. To establish reliability researchers establish different procedures: § Split-half Reliability: Dividing the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are. § Test-Retest Reliability: Using the same test on two occasion to measure consistency § Validity o Reliability of a test does not ensure validity. Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict § Content Validity: Refers to the extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait. PSYC 1301 Occt133,,20166 Lecture Notes § Predictive validity: Refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait § Reliability and Validity of IQ o IQ is most stable across age and across retesting § Prior to age 3 IQ does not predict adult IQ o IQ can predict school grades when the entire range is considered, but not at the top end of the scores o IQ can predict life outcomes including health and accidents, but because it is confounded with social class, it is difficult to tease apart § Reliability and Validity of IQ tests o Exceptionally reliable – correlations into the .90s o Qualified validity – valid indicators of academic/verbal intelligence, not intelligence in a truly general sense § Correlations: § .40s-.50s with school success § .60s-.80s with number of years in school § Predictive of occupational attainment, debate about predictiveness5 of performance § The Evolution of Intelligence Testing o Sir Francis Galton (1869) § Hereditary Genius o (1884) – Intelligence is a byproduct of sensory capacity o You could visit his museum and submit to his tests. Differentiate sounds, weights, lengths, light, etc. He would then score you o He then suggested that bright guys should marry bright women to produce smarter kids § Clark Wissler (1901) – various senses are uncorrelated with one another and with school performance § So it lacked reliability and validity § Alfred Binet o Alfred Binet and his colleague Theodore Simon practiced a more modern form of intelligence testing by developing questions that would predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system § Lewis Terman o In the US, Lewis Terman adapted Binet’s test for American school children and named the test the Stanford-Binet Test. The following is the formuMental Agelligence Quotient (IQ), introduced by William Stern: o IQ= /Chronological Age00 (this was an ineffective formula for the calculation of IQ) § David Wechsler o Wechsler developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), and intelligence test for school-aged children § WAIS o WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 other aspects related to intelligence that are designed to assess clinical and educational problems PSYC 1301 Occt 13,,20116 Lecture Notes § Extremes of Intelligence o “Intellectual disability” refers to people who § Have an IQ around 70 or below § Have difficulty with adaptive skills like: • Conceptual skills (literacy and calculation) • Social skills, including making safe social choices • Practical daily living skills such as hygiene, occupational skills, and using transportation o Although some people with high intelligence test scores can seem socially delayed or withdrawn, most are “successful.” o “Gifted” children, like any children, learn best with an appropriate level of challenge o High Intelligence § Contrary to popular belief, people with high intelligence test scores tend to be healthy, well adjusted, and usually successful academically § Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence o No other topic in psychology is so passionately followed as the one that asks the question, “Is intelligence do to genetics or environment?” § Adoption Studies o Adopted children show a marginal correlation in verbal ability to their adapted parents § Heritability o The variation in intelligence test scores attributed to genetics. We credit heredity with 50% of the variation in intelligence. o It pertains only to who people differ from one another, not the individual § Environmental Influences on IQ o Expectancy Effects § Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson gave fake data to teachers suggesting some students would experience large increases in IQ § These randomly selected students experienced an IQ gain of around 4 points o Poverty § Arthur Jensen (1977) studies poor families in Georgia and found that children experienced a 1.5 IQ point drop per year § Poverty could be associated with malnutrition, exposure to lead, and less breast-feeding § Early Intervention Effects o Early neglect from caregivers leads children to develop a lack of personal control over the environment, and it impoverishes their intelligence § Schooling and Intelligence o Preschool and elementary school clearly have at least a temporary impact on intelligence test scores o College can have a positive impact on intelligence test scores if students have: § Motivational and incentives PSYC 1301 Octt13,20016 Lecture Notes § Belief that people can improve § Study skills, especially the willingness to practice