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Learning and Memory Notes: Week #2

by: Bailee Hyde

Learning and Memory Notes: Week #2 PSYC 100 - 001

Bailee Hyde

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About this Document

These are the notes for the second week of this unit.
Intro to Psych
Douglas B Matthews
Class Notes
learning, memory, hippocampus, encoding, recall
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailee Hyde on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 100 - 001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Douglas B Matthews in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psych in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.

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Date Created: 10/14/16
learning & memory notes 10/10-10/14 ▯ Learning: ▯ Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery  No longer pairing the CS with reward  Sudden re-emergence of a previously learned CR ▯ Aspects of CC ▯ Generalization: Taking what you learned and applying it in a different situation.  When to use the info.  Giving a CR to stimuli that are similar to the CS  More different the situation=performance goes down  Ex: Studying for the exam and taking the exam ▯ Discrimination Learning  When NOT to use the info.  Learning to give the CR to only the CS and not to similar stimuli ▯ Long-Term Potentiation: A potential cellular form of learning.  Belief that learning should involve some type of change in the brain  Often studied in the Hippocampus ▯ Why the Hippocampus? 1. Brain region that is most important for declarative memory 2. Perfect neural experimental type ▯ What impairs learning? 1. Lack of sleep 2. Stress 3. Drugs 4. Alcohol 5. Damage to the Hippocampus Tetanus: Increased strength of the stimulus. Operant Learning: You do something to get something (good or bad) back.  Law of Effect: Responses that produce desirable effects would be stamped into the individual.  Reinforcer=liked  Punishment=disliked ▯ Positive: Applied  Ex: Spanking, Chores ▯ Negative: Removed  Ex: taking away something that the individual enjoys ▯ Ratios of Reinforcement: How often do you get the reinforcement. 1. Fixed=Rewarded for predetermined number of responses. 2. Variable=Can’t predict the number of responses needed for reinforcement. 3. Fixed Interval=A known time needs to pass in order to receive the reinforcement. 4. Variable Interval=Time is unknown to receive the reinforcement. Higher Order Learning Hypothesis Testing: “Process of Elimination” Cognitive Maps: A mental representation of the world in your mind that you use to facilitate your behavior.  Represent distance at some level  Can create errors & distortion ▯ Imitation: Learn by watching or imitating someone else’s behavior. ▯ Memory: ▯ Memory: Evidence that learning has occurred.  No unified operational definition ▯ 3 Main Components ▯ Encoding: Modification of information to by processed by the memory system.  Like transduction  Modified into action potentials  “Learning” ▯ Storage: The retention of the material over time.  Storing memory  “Memory” ▯ Retrieval: Location and recovery of the memory when it is needed in the future.  Memory is only useful if you can find it and use it  “Get memory out” ▯ Types of Memory ▯ Recall: Retrieving information not currently in your consciousness.  Ex: Short answer questions ▯ Recognition: Identifying items previously learned.  Ex: Multiple choice questions ▯ Relearning: Learning something more quickly the second time through. ▯ Three Stages of Memory ▯ Sensory (iconic) memory: Memory at the level of the sense.  Short in duration  Ex: Sun spots in your eyes ▯ Working (short term) memory: Temporally graded memory.  Memory you are currently using  Stored often in chunks (capacity of 7 chunks)  Most vulnerable ▯ Long-Term memory: Memory that lasts for long periods of time.  Ex: Remembering your past teachers ▯ Efforts to Increase Processing ▯ Chunking: Packaging information together. ▯ Mnemonics: Something that helps you remember something  Ex: Acronyms ▯ Hierarchies/Scripts: Sequence of events that often happen.  Can produce false positives ▯ ▯


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