Human Geography Chapter 11
Human Geography Chapter 11 Geog 1101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Ahmed on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Rice in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Human Geography in Geography at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Human Geography Urbanization What do you think of when you think of a city? Big buildings Traffic Walking Variety of business, people Noise Public transportation Arts/ culture Park Urban decline, hood Not a singular definition however Lets talk cities Tokyo: 38 million people o Biggest city in world Delhi: 22 million residents New York/ Newark: 20 million Atlanta: 5 million o City of Atlanta: 5,000 o Greater Atlanta area: 5 million Las Vegas: 2 million Cincinnati: 1.6 million Lubbock, TX: 240,000 Athens, GA: 124,000 o (OC 35,000) Urbanization… “The increasing concentration of population into growing metropolitan areas” (Know and Marston). o Changes to physical environment and social systems o Movement of people and materials Move in and out of cities in large volume and quickly o Diverse cause and effects The process of making cities/ becoming urban A brief history (and future) of urbanization Began as hunter/ gathers Then rise of agriculture o Semi permanent at first Allowed the development of other jobs besides farming Urbanization not new o Thousands of years of urbanization Human Geography Urbanization o Urbanization now tide to industrialization Maps and stuf How urbanized o Green more urban o Developed countries higher rates Annual growth rates of urbanization o Most rapid rates of urbanization happening in developing world o Fastest growing cities in Asia (developing world) Percentage of World population o Rural populations steadily decreasing o Urban populations steadily increasing o 2010 50/50 Urban Spaces What causes cities to be similar Why do we get patterns of why certain people leave where, social structures put there why How do cities change What is an “urban” space? US census designation of “Metropolitan Statistical Area” versus a single jurisdiction o Places closely connected to a large city Atlanta and Roswell Role of Cities in Human Organization Mobilizing functions for organizing labor, capital, raw materials, manufacturing, and distribution o Physical infrastructure and people move mass amounts of stuff, ideas, people Decision-making capacity by bringing together public and private organizations and institutions, especially those related to economic power o People have to do a lot of governing/ decision making Generative functions produced by bringing people together; interaction and competition; innovation, knowledge, and information o Shifts in industry/ interactions Transformative capacity through sixe and diversity of people, behaviors, and life styles o Heterogeneous people close together, interacting o People find niches in these communities Human Geography Urbanization LGBT Studying Urbanization Similarities and differences among and within urban places. o Urban Form: physical structure and organization of cities in their land use, layout, and built environment How are land uses laid out? We see patterns Segregation, congregation o Urban System: interdependent set of urban settlements within a given region Cities relate spatially Economic, social, political connections o Urban Ecology: the social and demographic composition of city districts and neighborhoods Whose interacting in what ways How diverse people are brought together and arranged o Urbanism: the way of life fostered by urban settings… resulting in diverse attitudes, values, and patterns of behavior Urban Origins First agricultural revolution and rise of the “fertile crescent.” o Aka hearth areas Urbanization today is new but urban settlements are much much older European urban system introduced by Greek and reestablished by Romans, rise from feudal system. o Specific types of settlements mimic across time/ space o 3 functions of cities Universities/ education/ religion Defensive strong hold, for militaries Administrative centers Industrialization and Urbanization In 1800, less than 5% of the world’s population lived in cities. By 1950, 16% urban. Today ~ 54% Why we need cities o Innovations in transportation technology Also changes where cities can be (more inland) o Changes in labor relations o Infrastructure for manufacturing and commerce o Concentration of markets Human Geography Urbanization World Cities World cities play key roles in organizing space beyond their own national boundaries Influence isn’t necessarily define by size o London and New York two most influential cities globally Highly influential cities in the developing world as well World Urbanization today Remember, urban population is expected to reach 70% by 2050, with fastest growth developing countries o Many developing countries struggle to keep up with this growing urban population experiencing over urbanization where cities grow more rapidly than they can sustain housing and jobs Creates slums Cities as sites of cultural production o “Urban populations generate serendipity, unexpected encounters and new “new combinations” that lead to innovation” (Knox and Marston)