Psych 2213, Week: Oct 9th, 2016
Psych 2213, Week: Oct 9th, 2016 Psych 2213-102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brian Donado on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2213-102 at Appalachian State University taught by Dr. Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Social Psychology Class Notes: SelfJustification 10/3/16 Exam 2. Next Monday (10/10/16) Quiz 4. Due Sunday (10/9/16) Most people have a need to maintain high selfesteem, to see themselves as good, competent, & decent. Cognitive Dissonance: Discomfort caused by performing an action that goes against one’s self view. When we feel dissonance, we try to reduce it. 3 Ways to Reduce Cognitive Dissonance: 1. By changing behavior to be in line with the dissonant cognition. 2. By changing dissonant cognitions. 3. By adding new cognitions. Example: You smoke and learn about the negative effects of smoking. (This causes dissonance) 1. Stop smoking, 2. Think smoking isn’t bad. 3. Think smoking might be bad, but you need it when stressed out in order to relax. $1 & $20 Study Experiment: Who Experienced Cognitive Dissonance? Control Condition ($1 & $20 Condition Group) Cause of Dissonance? “I’m a good person, but I lied about the task.” Two ways the condition groups reduced their dissonance was by creating reasons for their actions. $1 condition group: “The task wasn’t so bad, so I didn’t really lie.” & the $20 condition group said: “I lied, but I got paid a lot to do it.” It’s not surprising that our attitudes influence our behavior. Our behavior is often influenced by our attitudes. This is especially true when we aren’t able to change our behavior. Dissonance is the cause of the spreading of alternatives. People try to reduce the dissonance that comes with their decisions. “I made a good decision…right?” Dissonance is reduced by: 1. Focusing on the POSITIVES of the chosen. 2. Focusing on the NEGATIVES of the rejected. When people want and like things, they work hard to get them. When people work hard to get things, they really want and like them. When we work hard for things, we have to justify our efforts. This can lead to a change in our attitude & cognitions. Dissonance will lead to Attitude Change when: 1. When there is no external justification. – “I lied and only got $1” 2. When we feel responsible for our actions. “I didn’t have to write this essay” 3. When we can’t change our behavior. –“ I’m stuck with this photo and can’t exchange it” 4. When we attribute our dissonance to our behavior. (dissonance to attitudediscrepant behavior. Cognitive Is a feeling & Dissonance bad. Cognitive Dissonance Means having a bad feeling. We can misattribute our dissonance. In order to justify our past behaviors, we often change our attitudes. For example: “This task wasn’t so boring”., “This group is awesome”., “Being a parent is great!”., “Mad Max is a fantastic movie”. People can simulate (imagine) future events. Sometimes we can be wrong. Impact Bias: Overestimating the impact of a future event (both positive and negative). We can be wrong with our impact bias because we focus on the impact of the event & we actually learn how to deal with bad outcomes and we soon learn how it feels to be used to getting good outcomes. Attitudes DO fluctuate based on: 1. Available information. 2. Information Focus. 3. Mood. 4. Many other things… Attitude change that comes from cognitive dissonance is REAL. Thinking about negatives only increases liking if you’re “stuck” Often, easiest way to get behavior in line with attitudes is change behavior. Cognitive dissonance can be good. Alerts us when we need to change our behavior to match our attitudes. Helps us deal with things we can’t change. Cognitive dissonance can be bad. People often change their attitude to match their behavior, or justify why their behavior doesn’t match their attitudes Why should you care? Our ability to justify our behaviors is virtually limitless. If you want people to believe something, make them defend their beliefs. If you want people to LIKE doing something, don’t force them to do it. Getting people to do something can lead to them liking it (as long as they feel like they have a choice). Attitude Change Notes Attitudes Evaluation of people, objects, ideas, etc. 3 components communicated message: Who says what to whom? Who Source of the message What The message being communicated To Whom The audience receiving the message Who: Important Characteristics: Credibility, Attractiveness, Power. What: Important Characteristics: Comprehensibility, Strength of arguments, & onesided vs twosided. Whom: Important Characteristics of Audience: Knowledge, Interest, Personal Relevance, & Attentiveness. Conflict Findings: Ex. Sometimes source credibility doesn’t matter a whole lot, and other times it may be highly important. Rich Petty & John Cacioppo Developed Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to explain when source, message, & audience characteristics matter. 2 specific types of cues: 1. Central Cues “Important Stuff” 2. Peripheral Cues “Surface” Stuff that doesn’t matter Characteristics associated with the message 1 Postulate ELM: When motivation & ability are high, people will pay attention to control cues. Factors influencing motivation: Personal Relevance, Importance, Incentives, etc. 2 Postulate ELM: Central Cues most influential when people have motivation and ability to process the message, if lacking either, peripheral cues more influential. Tradeoff between influence of central & peripheral cues.
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