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Week 7

by: Laura Castro Lindarte
Laura Castro Lindarte

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Primate diversity and behavior. No lab next week instead have to go to zoo.
Introduction To Biological Anthropology
W. Andrew Barr
Class Notes
Biological, Anthropology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Castro Lindarte on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1001 at George Washington University taught by W. Andrew Barr in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction To Biological Anthropology in Biology/Anthropology at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 10/14/16
October 10, 2016 Primates: Diversity ● Primates have a ​generalized postcranial anato​ primitive traits) ● DIVERSE LOCOMOTOR ADAPTATIONS, ​most will be able to climb to an extent ○ Vertical clinging and leaping ○ Knuckle walking ○ Suspensory brachantion ○ Quadrupedalism ○ Suspensory, climbing ● Teeth among mammals are diverse ​depending on what they eat ○ Primates have low rounded cups that ar​ eneralized allowing us to eat various foods ○ Carnivores: high pointy teeth for tearing meat ○ Elephants: broad flat surfaces on cheek teeth for chewing tough grasses and plant materials ● Primitive teeth characteristics: ○ Teeth in upper and lower jaw ○ Bilaterally symmetry ○ Heterodont dentition ■ Anterior teeth (front)- getting food, ingestion ■ Incisors: cut food ■ Canines- tear food also behavioural purposes ■ Posterior (back)- chewing ■ Premorals and morals: crushing and grinding ● Primates have ​ arious diets- different adaptations for diets ○ Frugivory (fruit eating):​ low cusps for crushing soft fruits and wide spatula-shape front teeth ○ Folivory (leaf eating): higher cutting ridges in back teeth, well-developed shearing crests for cutting tough leafy material into small pieces ○ Insectivory (insect eating):​ sharp crest for puncturing the outer skeleton of insects ● Primates are usuall​ ound in tropics- rainforests ○ Between tropic of cancer and capricorn ○ General rule, not all primates found in tropics ● Vertical clinging and leaping is common and how ancestral parnatus moved ○ Required long powerful hind limbs, long flexible back and long fingers for grasping supports when they land ● 2 big groups in primates: ​strepsirhini and haplor​ divided 60 million years ago) ○ Another division is between​ anthropoids​ = new world monkeys, old world monkeys, apes and p​ rosimians ​ strepsirhines and tarsiers ■ Only difference is that tarsiers are grouped with strepsirhines instead of being with new world monkeys, old world monkeys and apes ○ Strepsirhini: ​Madagascar, Central and Southern Asia and South East Asia ■ Lemuroidea: l​ emurs (only Madagascar) ​ XTREMELY DIVERSE a. Make up about 25% of primates ■ Lorisoidea:​ alagos and lorises​ ot in social groups except for sleeping, (forging solitary) a. Dispersed polygamy, nocturnal and varied diet ■ Primitive traits: a. Well-developed sense of smell ​ retain rhinarium) b. Lower jaw is not fused c. Eye has a tapetum lucidum (​ reflected looking eyes, similar to cats at night) i. Most are nocturnal so this is useful ■ Derived traits: a. Toothcomb ( ​ lower front teeth stick out) b. Grooming claw (​ one claw to groom and other functions, 2nd digits) ■ Galagos (​ Africa) are known for leaping abili​ vertical clinging and leaping) ■ Loris, Potto ​(Africa and Asia) ha​ low quadrupedal locomotor ​ reduced 2nd digit to improve grasp, have wide and strong grasp) a. Cryptic (protective respond to predators) ■ Dwarf lemurs have SMALL body size ( ​ include smallest primates) a. Quadrupedal, nocturnal, ​ win are common, ​seasonal torpor and fat storage (hibernation) ■ True lemurs are diurnal and cathemeral species ​ active during the day and night) a. Live in​ ARGE social groups, ​ irth to single and twins b. Female-led social groups because they are larger c. Ring-tailed lemurs:​ diurnal but have tapetum lucidum, highly terrestrial, LARGE GROUP, female dominance ■ Indri, sifaka are LARGEST LEMURS, ​diurnal/nocturnal, ​ ore folivorous and vertical clinging and leaping ■ Aye-Aye i​ s diet specialized f​ ood-boring insect larvae​ xcept for thumb and big toe a​ ll digits have claws, long/thin 3rd digit that functions like a skewer a. Knock on tree to new hollow then scooping and take out insects b. Large continuously growing incisors ○ Haplorhines: ​Central and South America, Africa, Asia and Europe ■ Derived traits for anthropoid​ diurnal so no tapetum lucidum, decreased olfaction and enhanced vision) a. Lack rhinarium, eyes facing forward ■ Tarsioidea: ​ arsiers (South East Asia) a. Has prosimian traits​ (grooming claws, unfused lower jaw, nocturnal, small social groups) i. Prosimian traits are primitive so does not mean they are closely related to strepsirhines b. Has haplorhine traits ​ lacks tapetum lucidum, rhinarium and tooth comb) c. Other derived traits: ​vertical clinging and leaping, large eyes relative body size and nocturnal predators of small vertebrates ■ Anthropoidea divide into ​ latyrrhi​ new world monkeys) and​ catarrhini (old world monkeys) a. Both are ​quadrupedalism (terrestrial and arboreal) i. Hind and forelimbs are near equal length, long tails to aid in balance, shoulder blade positioned to the side of the ribcage so RESTRICTED MOVEMENT AT THE SHOULDER ■ Platyrrhines: ​broad nose with outward facing nostrils, 3 premolars in each quadrant (, ​all arbore​ ome have prehensive tail, ​ ost have color vision a. New world monkeys b. Prehensive tail that can hold body weight )like 5 limb), grabbing surface in bottom of tail ■ Marmaset and tamarins: ​have small body, omnivorous, o ​ nly one breeding females, ​intense female-female competition (suppressed ovulation in subordinate females), twinning is common, M​ ALE ARE PRINCIPAL CAREGIVERS ■ Other new world monkeys: d ​ iverse group (taxonomy debated), insectivore-frugivores, diverse social organizatio​ monogamy of night monkeys to multimale-multifemale October 12, 2016 Primate Behaviour ● Finish from last clas: ○ Catarrhini: ​old world monkeys, apes and humans (Africa and Asia) ■ Colobine monkeys: d​ ietary specialists ​ ature leaves a. Arboreal quadrupeds ( ​ live in trees and walk in four legs) b. Adaptations for leaping ■ Cercopithecine monkeys: a​ rboreal and semi-terrestrial species a. Omnivores and cheek pouches to load up with food b. Sexual swelling in cercopithecines to let other know that they are ready to mate ■ Ischial callositi​ ads for sitting in all old world monkeys ○ Hominoids: ​apes and humans, L​ ACK TAIL, ​large brain and enhances cognition, prolonged development ■ Postcranial adaptations for SUSPENSORY posture and locomotion (hanging off bottom of trees) ■ Short hind limbs and long forelimbs, mobile shoulder joint, shoulder blade located on back and long curved fingers for grasping branches ■ Gibbons and siamangs: S​ outh East Asia, smallest of apes (“lesser apes“), diet focused on fruits but also eat leaves, flowers and invertebrates, socially monogamous, no sexual dimorphism, brachiation (requires lots of shoulder movement) ■ Great apes: ​ amily hominidae, (Borneo and Sumatra- orangutans, Central and West Africa- gorillas and chimpanzees) a. Large body size b. Includes orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees and humans c. Show suspensory adaptations but are q ​ uadrupedal on the ground d. Knuckle-walking: f​ orm of quadrupedalism practice by great apes, walk on intermediate knuckle when on ground, ​ rist joints are stabilized ○ Nearly half of the world’s primate taxa are classified as Threatened, and in danger of going extinct due t​ unting for bushmeat, pet trade, disease, political instability, habitat loss, fragmentation, modification, climate change ● Simple socioecological model: ​female distribution influences by food and make distribution is influenced by female distribution ○ Example on why primates live in group ○ Food → female distribution → male distribution ○ Both female and males are looking at reproductive success ■ Female to make sure offsprings survive, males to mate as much as possible ● Primates obtain ​ utrients from many sources ○ Leaves have LOTS of fiber but hard to digest ■ Animals need special adaptations for it ○ Insectivores tend to be ​smaller because need higher energy so eat small amount of high-quality foods ■ Folivores tend to be larger because ​ an afford to eat more ○ Leaves are abundant in forest and predictable ■ Fruits are less predictable and patchily distributed ■ Folivores tend to have smaller home ranges than frugivores (​ can stay at one area and eat foods there, frugivores need to move around looking for fruits) ● Why primates live in groups? ○ Cost of sociability: ■ Greater competition ​ sharing resources) ■ Higher vulnerability to disease ○ Benefits of sociability: ■ Enhanced access to resources ■ Lower vulnerability to predation 1. Resource defend model: a. Primates live in groups because ​ roups are more successful in defending access to resources ​than lone individuals b. Only true when: i. Food item is​ elatively valuabl​ high calorie intake and nutrients) ii. Food sources are ​ lumped in space and time (​ in specific space that is easy to defend) iii. There is enough food in patches to feed everyone c. FRUIT OFTEN MEET THIS d. LARGER GROUPS ARE MOST SUCCESSFUL i. Larger group size, more likely to win when defending food e. Problem with theory is that group living means​ ore competition within group even if okay when working together to prevent between group competition i. Group size reads to be middle f. Does not explain why folivores primates live together ​(leaves) 2. Predatory defense model: a. Group living evolved as ​ efense against predators i. Wide array of predators hunt primates so source of death b. Group decreases individual vulnerability i. Terrestrial species from LARGER GROUPS than those in trees because need to worry more about predators c. Solitary haplorhines tend to be LARGER IN BODY SIZE so decreases predatory ris​ if larger than predators then will not attack) d. Juveniles suffer higher mortality in smaller grou​ han in larger groups e. Primates adjust behaviour in presence of ris​ ex: alarm calling) f. Explain why folivores live in groups g. Problem is that ​ REDATION IS HARD TO BE OBSERVED IN WILD (usually happen during night) 3. Answer of why is probably both defending food and production ● Reproductive asymmetry: ​mothers are almost always the PRIMARY CARETAKER OF OFFSPRING ​(do not have physical traits to feed babies) ○ Paternal care is more variable ■ Not true in humans since have more options ○ Related to ​reproductive potential (makes produce many numbers of sperm during life while female have set number of eggs​ ingle male can father way more offspring than female ■ Female can not increase reproductive success by increase offspring, better to increase probability that they will survive ■ Primary limit for male is females not mating with them, for females it is time and resources ● Female increase offspring survival by: 1. Investing more care and energy ​(give more resource and care) a. MOST SOLID 2. Be picky of males fathering their offsprin​ mate with quality male) ○ Distribution INFLUENCED BY FOOD ​to give more to offsprings ■ Influence type of competition an​ hether to live alone or in group? ■ Scrambled competition: ​ esources can not be monopolized,​ ome individuals conclude others from accessing it a. Resources are clumped, intermediate size and high value b. LESS LIKELY TO LIVE IN GROUP ■ Contest competition: ​access to resource can be monopolized a. Some individuals exclude others from accessing it b. Resource are dumped, intermediate size and high value c. MORE LIKELY TO LIVE IN GROUP ● In-group Interactions: ○ Dominance: h​ ow often individual wins in competition ■ Measured by looking at submissive or aggressive behavior (approach-retreat interaction) ■ Can figure out hierarchy ■ When increased competition, ​ ominance rank may determine priority access to resources ■ Impact fitness​ x: yellow baboons from Amboseli National Park, Kenya (offspring of higher ranking females are larger, faster growing and reproduce earlier ● Make strategies: ○ Increase variability of reproductive success ■ Reproductive skew: ​some males have more access to reproduction than others ■ Female have similar number of offspring ○ LIMITED BY ACCESS TO FEMALE ​(some males have more access to females) INCREASE COMPETITION ○ Male strategies influenced by female distribution (how many, how reproductive accessible) ● If female are clumped, ​monopolization of fertilizations ​ one male groups) ● Male competition is ​more violent (live or death) ○ Especially in one male group because those not in group will have 0% chance of mating while if they take over they have 100% chance ○ Females have more chance of finding more sources of food so won’t fight to death


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