His 106: Week 8 Notes
His 106: Week 8 Notes His 106
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey Hansen on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to His 106 at University of Mississippi taught by Jared Heath Roll in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
The wartime committees were not intended to be permanent. Building an Army Selective Service Act (1917) – draft civilians into the military 100,000 soldiers before 1915 3 million in service from 19171918 o 300,000 of these were volunteers, the rest joined through Selective Service Act America Fighting No action until 1918 Key role after Russia withdrew Decisive in counterattack against Germany in late 1918 Germany surrendered on November 11, 1918 o Armistice Day, now celebrated as Veteran’s Day 1.4 million Americans were in combat; 112,000 combat deaths o This was the bloodiest war for the U.S. since the Civil War Fighting the “War for Democracy” at Home Espionage Act (1917) – enabled the federal government to monitor suspected spies and detain those without trial o Silences civil rights Trading with the Enemy Act (1917) – stops trade with Germany Sedition Act (1918) – silences the criticism of war efforts o Silences free speech Effect at Home Labor – higher wages, access to new jobs Great Migration – around 400,000 African Americans leave the South for Northern cities in search for jobs Increased Mexican immigration Women’s campaign for voting rights wins through the National thmen’s Party (1916) – allows women to vote – legislation that would become the 19 Amendment passed in January 1918, and ratified in 1920. Antibooze activists win – prohibition on manufacture, transportation, and sale of th intoxicating beverages becomes the 18 Amendment (1919) – purify American society America in the 1920s The Most Conservative Country on Earth The End of the “War to End all Wars” Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” – extension at American democratic principles to European Empires, plus new international commitments to free travel, trade, and the collective arbitration of disputes Americans consider the Treaty of Versailles, modeled in part on Wilson’s 14 Points o Wanted League of Nations to mitigate disputes between countries o Wanted to open up borders Wilson’s 14 Points were guided by American capitalist desires to access global markets Fun Fact: Wilson was the first President to leave the States while in office Republicans Republicans retook the Senate in 1918 when Henry Cabot Lodge became the Senate Majority leader He was opposed to the treaty He wasn’t a Progressive Republican He didn’t think America should be tied down by a global governing body 1919: Year of Fear and Turmoil Reconversion to peace time was difficult Strikes and protests occurred, trying to keep up the wartime gain Violent attacks by radicals set the American government on a path towards Communism The Red Scare – fear of communist subversion Government repression of dissent aided by American Legion and KKK – due to the growing suspicion of immigrants, they deported people they believed were corrupt in order to enforce American loyalty Elaine, Arkansas – racial massacre (1919) – African American farmers were looking for better wages, and were attacked by white vigilantes; the 3 day attack killed 2501,000 African Americans Wall Street Bombing September 1920 – Effort to strike terror into the heart of the New York financial district o Gave shape to public fears November 1920: Republicans Retake Control Harding/Coolidge elected to White House o Take 5937 majority in Senate o Take 303131 majority in House THIS WAS A MASSIVE MAJORITY Unemployment skyrockets from 2% during the war to 15% Andrew Mellon: Secretary of Treasury 19211932 Cut spending Cut taxes, especially on the rich Lower interest rates to make credit cheaper o MEGA CONSERVATIVE Economic growth returned quickly – economic prosperity was backed by low taxes and cheap money Harding Government When choosing his cabinet members, he chose friends and cronies, which led to corruption. Albert Fall, Secretary of Interior, and Teapot Dome Col. Forbes and the Veteran’s Administration Series of scandals took place Harding died of a heart attack in 1923 Department of Commerce Led by Herbert Hoover 19211929 Uses the federal government resources to aid businesses Saves thousands of people from starvation during the war Hoover was considered the smartest man in the world Hoover and Commerce Census Bureau Bureau of Standards – established standard screw thread angles Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce – established national highway system, and regulated air travel and radio broadcasting REMEMBER: This was a Progressive creation; Hoover believed in rational efficiency Coolidge Becomes President Coolidge becomes President when Harding dies in 1923 “The business of government is business” Coolidge believed that government cannot be tiny or weak, it must be active. He was reelected in 1924 by a landslide o Coolidge got 15 million votes o Davis (D) got 8 million votes o La Follette (P) got 5 million votes Republican Foreign Policy High tariffs – in order to protect American industry, foreign goods were made more expensive Insisting on the repayment of wartime loans Disarmament – reducing military force Coolidge Under Coolidge, government tilts more toward business Mellon kept cutting taxes and spending William Howard Taft, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court “The most conservative country in the world” Republicans and the Roaring 20s Easy money, low taxes, government aid to business Consumer prosperity, consumer credit People begin buying “modern conveniences” o Washing machines, vacuum cleaners, cars, etc. New residential suburbs increasingly pop up Electric Society By 1929, the U.S. produced more electricity than the rest of the world combined Cities By the 1920s, the majority of the country lives in cities – 68 cities with over 100,000 citizens Cities are centers of consumption, such as shopping Great Migration Harlem Renaissance – center of black culture and artistic rebirth Jazz Age New patterns of residential segregation o Harlem, South Side Chicago, etc. o Segregation is enforced by real estate agents and banks Not enforced by the government Women and the City Work – women come to cities to escape the farms and seek independence; work such as factory work, teaching, and secretary work was given to college educated women Consumption and leisure – shopping Sex – women challenge moral traditions o Flappers – cultural symbol Culture Wars in 1920s Rural Protestants vs. Urban Culture o Sex, secularism, nonProtestantism Scope Trial, TN (1925) – a high school science teach taught evolution, which pitted modern America against smalltown religious America; it almost seemed like new versus old America; William Jennings Bryan defends TN KKK goes national – AntiCatholic, AntiSemitic o Didn’t think Catholics are Christian; they thought they were corrupting American society and politics through the cities; 100% Americanism o Leads to the Immigration Restriction Act (1924) – discriminates against Eastern European immigrants and Jewish immigrant Discussion: We spent time in discussion making discussion questions for the class to talk about. 1. Who was the most important political figure in the 20s? Andrew Mellon, Secretary of Treasury 2. What did it mean to be a new woman in the 20s? Flappers – relaxed morals 3. How does the Red Summer expose the turmoil of that time in history? 1919 – outrage from the black community about their rights – further attack on immigrants – growing distrust – Red = bloodshed; Red Scare – antiimmigration – fear of immigrants 4. What was the purpose of the Bureau of Standards? Set standards for manufacturing – standard screw threads 5. Why did people move into residential suburbs? Lowered taxes, thriving business, cheap credit – have automobiles, can commute 6. What were the effects of the war at home? Espionage Act, Sedition Act