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His 106: Week 8 Notes

by: Hailey Hansen

His 106: Week 8 Notes His 106

Marketplace > University of Mississippi > His 106 > His 106 Week 8 Notes
Hailey Hansen

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About this Document

This week we covered the end of WWI and the Roaring 20s.
The United States Since 1877
Jared Heath Roll
Class Notes
history, WWI, 1920s, Mellon, Harding, Coolidge, commerce, harlem renaissance, flappers
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey Hansen on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to His 106 at University of Mississippi taught by Jared Heath Roll in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
The wartime committees were not intended to be permanent. Building an Army  Selective Service Act (1917) – draft civilians into the military  100,000 soldiers before 1915  3 million in service from 1917­1918 o 300,000 of these were volunteers, the rest joined through Selective Service Act America Fighting  No action until 1918  Key role after Russia withdrew  Decisive in counter­attack against Germany in late 1918  Germany surrendered on November 11, 1918 o Armistice Day, now celebrated as Veteran’s Day  1.4 million Americans were in combat; 112,000 combat deaths o This was the bloodiest war for the U.S. since the Civil War Fighting the “War for Democracy” at Home  Espionage Act (1917) – enabled the federal government to monitor suspected spies and  detain those without trial o Silences civil rights  Trading with the Enemy Act (1917) – stops trade with Germany  Sedition Act (1918) – silences the criticism of war efforts o Silences free speech Effect at Home  Labor – higher wages, access to new jobs  Great Migration – around 400,000 African Americans leave the South for Northern cities  in search for jobs  Increased Mexican immigration  Women’s campaign for voting rights wins through the National thmen’s Party (1916) –  allows women to vote – legislation that would become the 19  Amendment passed in  January 1918, and ratified in 1920.  Anti­booze activists win – prohibition on manufacture, transportation, and sale of  th intoxicating beverages becomes the 18  Amendment (1919) – purify American society America in the 1920s The Most Conservative Country on Earth The End of the “War to End all Wars”  Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” – extension at American democratic principles to European  Empires, plus new international commitments to free travel, trade, and the collective  arbitration of disputes  Americans consider the Treaty of Versailles, modeled in part on Wilson’s 14 Points o Wanted League of Nations to mitigate disputes between countries o Wanted to open up borders  Wilson’s 14 Points were guided by American capitalist desires to access global markets  Fun Fact: Wilson was the first President to leave the States while in office Republicans  Republicans retook the Senate in 1918 when Henry Cabot Lodge became the Senate  Majority leader  He was opposed to the treaty  He wasn’t a Progressive Republican  He didn’t think America should be tied down by a global governing body 1919: Year of Fear and Turmoil  Reconversion to peace time was difficult  Strikes and protests occurred, trying to keep up the wartime gain  Violent attacks by radicals set the American government on a path towards Communism  The Red Scare – fear of communist subversion   Government repression of dissent aided by American Legion and KKK – due to the  growing suspicion of immigrants, they deported people they believed were corrupt in  order to enforce American loyalty  Elaine, Arkansas – racial massacre (1919) – African American farmers were looking for  better wages, and were attacked by white vigilantes; the 3 day attack killed 250­1,000  African Americans Wall Street Bombing  September 1920 – Effort to strike terror into the heart of the New York financial district o Gave shape to public fears November 1920: Republicans Retake Control  Harding/Coolidge elected to White House o Take 59­37 majority in Senate o Take 303­131 majority in House   THIS WAS A MASSIVE MAJORITY  Unemployment skyrockets from 2% during the war to 15% Andrew Mellon: Secretary of Treasury 1921­1932  Cut spending  Cut taxes, especially on the rich  Lower interest rates to make credit cheaper o MEGA CONSERVATIVE  Economic growth returned quickly – economic prosperity was backed by low taxes and  cheap money Harding Government  When choosing his cabinet members, he chose friends and cronies, which led to  corruption.  Albert Fall, Secretary of Interior, and Teapot Dome  Col. Forbes and the Veteran’s Administration  Series of scandals took place  Harding died of a heart attack in 1923 Department of Commerce  Led by Herbert Hoover 1921­1929  Uses the federal government resources to aid businesses  Saves thousands of people from starvation during the war  Hoover was considered the smartest man in the world Hoover and Commerce  Census Bureau  Bureau of Standards – established standard screw thread angles  Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce – established national highway system, and  regulated air travel and radio broadcasting  REMEMBER: This was a Progressive creation; Hoover believed in rational efficiency Coolidge Becomes President  Coolidge becomes President when Harding dies in 1923  “The business of government is business”  Coolidge believed that government cannot be tiny or weak, it must be active.  He was re­elected in 1924 by a landslide o Coolidge got 15 million votes o Davis (D) got 8 million votes o La Follette (P) got 5 million votes Republican Foreign Policy  High tariffs – in order to protect American industry, foreign goods were made more  expensive  Insisting on the repayment of wartime loans  Disarmament – reducing military force Coolidge  Under Coolidge, government tilts more toward business  Mellon kept cutting taxes and spending  William Howard Taft, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court  “The most conservative country in the world” Republicans and the Roaring 20s  Easy money, low taxes, government aid to business  Consumer prosperity, consumer credit  People begin buying “modern conveniences”  o Washing machines, vacuum cleaners, cars, etc.  New residential suburbs increasingly pop up Electric Society  By 1929, the U.S. produced more electricity than the rest of the world combined Cities  By the 1920s, the majority of the country lives in cities – 68 cities with over 100,000  citizens  Cities are centers of consumption, such as shopping Great Migration  Harlem Renaissance – center of black culture and artistic rebirth  Jazz Age  New patterns of residential segregation o Harlem, South Side Chicago, etc. o Segregation is enforced by real estate agents and banks  Not enforced by the government Women and the City  Work – women come to cities to escape the farms and seek independence; work such as  factory work, teaching, and secretary work was given to college educated women  Consumption and leisure – shopping  Sex – women challenge moral traditions o Flappers – cultural symbol Culture Wars in 1920s  Rural Protestants vs. Urban Culture o Sex, secularism, non­Protestantism  Scope Trial, TN (1925) – a high school science teach taught evolution, which pitted  modern America against small­town religious America; it almost seemed like new versus  old America; William Jennings Bryan defends TN  KKK goes national – Anti­Catholic, Anti­Semitic o Didn’t think Catholics are Christian; they thought they were corrupting American  society and politics through the cities; 100% Americanism o Leads to the Immigration Restriction Act (1924) – discriminates against Eastern  European immigrants and Jewish immigrant Discussion: We spent time in discussion making discussion questions for the class to talk about. 1. Who was the most important political figure in the 20s?  Andrew Mellon, Secretary of Treasury 2. What did it mean to be a new woman in the 20s?  Flappers – relaxed morals 3. How does the Red Summer expose the turmoil of that time in history?  1919 – outrage from the black community about their rights – further attack on  immigrants – growing distrust – Red = bloodshed; Red Scare – anti­immigration  – fear of immigrants 4. What was the purpose of the Bureau of Standards?  Set standards for manufacturing – standard screw threads 5. Why did people move into residential suburbs?  Lowered taxes, thriving business, cheap credit – have automobiles, can commute 6. What were the effects of the war at home?  Espionage Act, Sedition Act


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