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Overview on stress response

by: Tito

Overview on stress response 3540

Marketplace > East Tennessee State University > NURSING > 3540 > Overview on stress response

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this not is an overview of stress response.
Adult care 1
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tito on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3540 at East Tennessee State University taught by Ketron in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Adult care 1 in NURSING at East Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
STRESS RESPONSE 1. Briefly explain the process of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) including  the three stages (alarm, resistance/adaptation, and exhaustion).    Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) ­ This is a three­stage reaction to stress  that describes how the body respond to a stressor. The three­stage reactions are; alarm,  resistance, and exhaustion. GAS can be triggered by either direct physical event or indirect event and there are several body systems involved, especially the endocrine system and  the CNS.   Alarm stage – when the hormone is on the rise due to a stressor, the CNS is triggered and  the body’s defense systems are mobilized. This results in increase blood volume, blood  glucose, heart rate, blood flow to the muscles, respiratory rate and mental alertness. Also,  the pupils of the eyes dilates for wider visual field. Example is the “fight and flight”. If the stressor puts a serious threat on the person’s life, then the second stage comes in. Resistance stage – also known as the adaptation stage. In this stage, the body responds by  going back to its normal state.  Exhaustion Stage – continuous stress causes the progressive breakdown of compensatory  mechanism and homeostasis. This stage marks the onset of certain disease. 2. What are the major hormones of the stress response and where are they produced? Catecholamine (Epinephrine or Norepinephrine) ­ secreted from the medulla of the adrenal  gland Cortisol – secreted from the cortex of the adrenal gland.  3. Briefly describe the systemic effects including the affects to specific organs that occur  with the secretion of the stress hormones.      Neuroendocrine response to stress involves the sympathetic stimulation of the adrenal  gland medulla secrete catecholamine (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y),  and the stressor­induce stimulation of the pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn  stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete Steroid hormones, particularly cortisol. The  catecholamine prepare the body to act, and cortisol mobilizes the energy (glucose) and other substances needed for action. Epinephrine exerts it chief effect on the cardiovascular  system. It increases cardiac output and increases blow flow to the heart, brain, skeletal  muscles by dilating the vessels that supply these organs. It dilates the airways thereby  increasing oxygen supply to the bloodstream. Norepinephrine acts by complementing the  effects of epinephrine. It constricts blood vessels of the viscera and skin, thereby shifting the blood flow to the blood vessels dilated by epinephrine. Norepinephrine also increases  mental alertness. Cortisol mainly acts on the metabolic processes by inhibiting the use of  metabolic substances while promoting the formation. It mobilizes glucose, amino acids,  lipids and fatty acids and delivers them to the bloodstream. Glucocorticoids help with the  homeostasis of the CNS. They regulates the memory, cognition, mood, and sleep. 4.  Briefly describe the effects of endorphins, growth hormone, prolactin and oxytocin.        Endorphins – Beta­ endorphins are released into the blood as part of the response to  stressful stimuli. Hemorrhage increases its level. It helps regulate blood pressure instability and neuroendocrine and cytokine response to blood losses.        Growth hormone – Is released from the anterior pituitary gland. It affects the metabolism  of protein, lipid, and carbohydrates. The level of growth hormone is increased by a stressful  stimuli and it is suppressed by prolonged activation of stress response (chronic stress).        Prolactin – is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland. It is responsible for breast  development and lactation. When there is a stressor (like surgery, pelvic examination),  prolactin level increases. Prolactin requires more intense stimuli than those leading to increases in catecholamine or cortisol. It also affects the immune system, some classes of lymphocytes  have prolactin receptors.        Oxytocin – is secreted from the hypothalamus. It promotes bonding and social attachment.  It is also known to have an antistress properties and it helps to reduce anxiety. 5.   List the effects of aging on the stress response. The course of developing stress reactions and lower adaptive reserve and coping capacity.  The effects are:  Tissues and cellular changes   Alteration in the excitability of structures of the limbic system and  hypothalamus.  Increased blood concentration of catecholamine, ADH, ACTH, and cortisol.  Immunodepression and pattern of chronic inflammation.   Hypercoagulation of the blood.  Alteration in lipoproteins.  Alteration of opioid peptides. 6.   In your own words, in a short paragraph describe the relationship of personality,  coping       and illness to stress.            Every individuals are different, so is their personality, and coping capacity. Coping is the process and ability of an individual to handle stressful situations or conditions. The ability of  an individual to cope with a stressor depends on the intensity of the stress. One can cope by  adapting to the stressful challenge but when the stressor is consistent and the intensity  increases, then the coping ability diminishes. This response can result in changes in the  behavior which can be displayed psychologically and physiologically. The adjustment to the  continuous stressor depends on how the individual perceives, assesses and evaluates the  stressor. Individual’s personality plays a big role in the perception and response to a stressor.  Some elements of personality like anger, achievements (academic or personal), and have been  related to altering the immune functions, which can potentiate illness in humans due to the  intensity of the stress it puts on the body system.


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