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Anthropology 201, Ch. 4 Notes

by: Shawnie Ramey

Anthropology 201, Ch. 4 Notes ANTH 201-Intro to Cultural Anthropology

Shawnie Ramey
Western Washington University

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About this Document

These notes are typed in Cornell format. The chapter covers language and how it is different around the world as well as how it effects the people of the world.
Anthropology 201
Kathleen M. Saunders
Class Notes
Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, Language, Linguistics
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shawnie Ramey on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 201-Intro to Cultural Anthropology at Western Washington University taught by Kathleen M. Saunders in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Anthropology 201 in Anthropology at Western Washington University.

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Date Created: 10/14/16
Subject: Anthropology 201 CH.4 Date: Current Topic: Language 10/05/16 Questions Terms Definitions/Answers Important Questions/ Cues: Notes: Where does Language: A system of communicating that consists of sounds, language come words, and grammar. from? Evolutionary Perspective on Language:  Two Bio Abilities: 1. Ability to make linguistic sound using the mouth and the larynx. 2. Ability to reproduce these sounds to convey thoughts. Call System: Patterned sounds or utterances that express meanings. 4 Reasons Why Call Systems Aren’t Languages: 1. Animal call systems are limited to what and how much they can communicate. 2. Call systems are stimuli dependant, which means an animal can only communicate in response to a real- world stimulus. 3. Call systems tend to be nearly the same within a species with only minor difference between call systems widely used in separated regions. 4. Among animals, each call is distinct, and these calls are never combined to produce a call with a different meaning. How does Philology: Comparative study of ancient texts and documents. language actually  Jakob Grimm: Observed that there were regular work? patterned differences from 1 europeans language to another. He hypothesized that they all had 1 common ancestor. Grimm's Law: As speakers of 1 language move apart from each other, the consonants in that language shift. Proto Language: A hypothetical common ancestral language of 2 or more living languages. Cognate Words: Words in 2 languages that show the same systematic sound shifts. Ferdinand De Saussure: Suggested a distinction between the structure of a language, and how people actually speak it. Useful because it helps us realize that the rules we use to form words as native speakers, differs from how we actually speak. Descriptive Linguistics: The systematic analysis and description of a language's sound system and grammar. Phonology: The structure of speech sounds. Morphology: How words are formed into meaningful units. Syntax: Pattern of word order used to form sentences and longer utterances in a language. Stops: Sounds that are formed by closing off and reopening the oral cavity so that it stops the airflow through the mouth. Dialects: Regional or social varieties of 1 language. Intonation: The pattern of rising and falling pitch. Tenses: Past, Present, Future. Pronouns: 1st ,2nd, and 3rd person. Sociolinguistics: Study of how sociocultural context and norms shape language use on society.  Meaning emerges from conversation and social interactions, not the formal, underlying rules of language. Signs: Words or objects that stand for something else. Most basic way to convey meaning. Symbols: More elaborate form of signs. When a sign becomes a symbol, it takes on a much wider range of meanings.  Sherry Ortner described 3 types of symbols:  Summarizing: Sum up a variety of meanings.  American flag = ‘Merica, democracy, hard work, and freedom.  Elaborating: Explaining and clarifying complex relationships through a single/set of symbols.  Key Scenarios: Implies how people should act. Metaphors: Implicit comparisons of words or things that emphasize the similarities between them. Do people Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Language inclines its speakers to think speaking different about the world in certain way because of its specific grammatical languages categories. experience daily Linguistic Relativity: People speaking different languages life differently? perceive/interpret the world differently because of differences in language. Assertion Categories: 1. Statements that report fact a. He is running. 2. Declaration of an expectation. . He is going to eat. 3. Statements of some general truth. . Rain comes from clouds. How can Ethnoscience: The study of how people classify things in the languages be so world. dynamic and  Berlin and Kay studied color terms of over 100 stable at the same languages. They found that basic color terms are time? consistent across languages.  We have no way of knowing for sure what our cognitive processes are involved when we distinguish different sets of pronouns.  Some ways of thinking are guided by the languages we use while others are not. Creole Language: A language of mixed origin that has developed from a complex blending of 2 parent languages that exist as a mother tongue for some part of the population. Pidgin Languages: A mixed language with a simplified grammar, typically borrowing its vocab from one language and its grammar from another. How does National Language Policies: Different countries have tried to language relate to control language change through the creation of national social power and language policies. inequality?  Netherlands: Dutch linguist’s recommended spelling changes to keep up with changing language. Queen Wilhelmina and Queen Julianna issued royal decrees to do so.  French: Restricted english words from formal documents. Tried to preserve traditional french.  Preservation of language and culture are correlated  Many indigenous groups are facing “language death”  3,000 languages are endangered  1970’s: Bureau of indian affairs prohibited children to speak native language. Language Ideology: Widespread assumption that people make about relative sophistication and status of particular dialects and languages.  Lakoff: Social effects of speaking n this way can marginalize women’s voices in contexts of courtrooms, or workplaces.  People of Indonesian Island, Java, are the most status conscious people.  Ngoko(informal), Madhya(Intermediate), and Karya(polite)  Every sentence marks social status


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