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361 - 12

by: Tricia Mae Fortuna

361 - 12 361

Tricia Mae Fortuna
GPA 3.49

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About this Document

Specific Phobias and Social Anxiety Disorder
Abnormal Psychology
Class Notes
specific, phobias, animal, natural, Environment, situational, blood-injection-injury, treatment, Criteria, Diagnosis, fear, hierarchy, social, anxiety, Disorder, DSM-5, SSRIs, CBT
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tricia Mae Fortuna on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 361 at Towson University taught by DR. ERIN GIRIO-HERRERA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
361 10/13/16  Specific Phobias: An Overview o Facts and Statistics  4:1; Females are over-represented  9% 1-year prevalence overall; 16% in adolescents  Phobias tend to run a chronic course o Common Specific Phobias  Animal Phobia: fears of animals and insects  Natural environment (e.g., heights, storms): sometimes young people develop a fear in natural events  Situational Phobia: Fear of public transportation or enclosed spaces  Blood-injection-injury: fear and avoidance of exposure to blood, injury, or the possibility of an injection.  Sometimes associated with unusual vasovagal response (fainting) - blood pressure drops  Tensing not Relaxing keeps them from fainting  Runs in the family   Specific Phobias: Treatment o Psychological treatments of specific phobias  Cognitive-behavior therapies are highly effective  Development of a fear hierarchy o Client will develop a series of steps to get over from the fear o Starts with exposure of fear (hardest) o Look at a picture of the fear (easiest)  Exposure are critical  It’s easier to treat because it works mostly for people with phobias  It never goes away but conditioning and exposure helps prevent it  Developing a Fear Hierarchy: Clown o 1. Rubber figurine o 2. Picture – printed out o 3. Online image of clown – moving o 4. Watch tutorial of clown make-up o 5. Make friend dress up o 6. Dress self as a clown o 7. Meet person first then see clown after o 8. Circus o 9. Up close clown: 30, 20, 10 feet away o 10. Shake hand o Scared: face cannot be seen & not knowing who the person is 361 o Rate how scary the steps are (make exposure as intense as 6 – in order)  Social Anxiety Disorder: An overview o Overview and defining features  Extreme fear or discomfort in social and performance operation  Avoid or Endure with great distress  Fear of being negatively seen by others  Mostly about their perception not the reality  Markedly interferes with one’s ability to function  Often avoid social situations or endure them with great distress  Performance subtype: Anxiety only occurs in performance situations (e.g., public speaking) without anxiety in everyday interactions o Facts and Statistics  Prevalence: 6.8% in 1-year period in general population; 12.1% lifetime nd  (2 most common anxiety disorder)  Affects males and females equally  Onset is usually during adolescence  Peak age of onset at about 13 years  DSM-V Social Anxiety Disorder: o Marked by fear or anxiety about one or more social situations in which the person is exposed to possible scrutiny by others, with the fear that one will act in a way, or show anxiety symptoms, that will be negatively evaluated. o The social situations almost always provoke fear or anxiety and are avoided or endured with intense fear or anxiety o The fear or anxiety is out of proportion to the actual threat posed by the social situation and to the sociocultural context o The fear, anxiety, or avoidance is persistent, typically lasting for 6 months or more and causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning o The fear, anxiety, or avoidance is not attributed to the effects of a substance or another medical condition and is not better explained by the symptoms of another mental disorder or condition  Specify if: PERFORMANCE ONLY: If the fear is restricted to speaking or performing in public  From American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders (5 Ed.) Washington, DC.  361 o Behavioral Inhibition – inhibit or shy biologically (introversion might affect it)  Treatment for social anxiety o Psychological treatment  Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment (CBT)  Exposures are critical  What would exposures involve?  Cognitive-behavioral group treatment (CBGT)  Cognitive-behavioral therapies are highly effective  For youth, interventions that included parent component, outperformed intervention without parent component  Why? – treat parents as well to help reinforce exposure for the client o Mediation Treatment  SSRIs  Circumscribed performance anxiety may be treated with beta blockers or benzodiazepines  Relapse rates are higher following medication discontinuation


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