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Ling 201 Week 8 Notes

by: Kate Jahaske

Ling 201 Week 8 Notes LING 201

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Linguistics > LING 201 > Ling 201 Week 8 Notes
Kate Jahaske

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Ling 201 Week 8 Notes
Intro to Linguistics
Rachel Brown
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Jahaske on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 201 at University of Arizona taught by Rachel Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Linguistics in Linguistics at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
10/12/16 Things that have a great obstruction in the vocal track is a consonant Sonorants are the opposite of a consonant What do the following groups have in common: - [p, b, t, d, k, g, ʔ] o [+ cons, -cont, -son] - [p, b, m] o [+cons, +labial, -cont] - [f, v, s, z, h] o [+cons, +cont, -son] - [f, p, t, s, ʧ, k, h] o [+cons, -voice] - [v, d, z] o [+cons, +voice, -son] - [g, k] o [+cons, -cont, -son, +velar] All of these, because they are consonants, are -syllabic and -lateral. All except /m/ are -nasal as well.  Phonemes do not always cause the meaning to change, as with pronouncing been as “bean” or “bin.” However, in English, /i/ vs /ɪ/ are still different, and therefore different phonemes. Sounds in context The nearby sounds of a phoneme are called the phonological environment of that phoneme. For instance, the word /bin/ the phonological environment for the vowel is /b_n/ using “_” as a placeholder.  If two sounds are mutually exclusive, they appear in complementary environment.  If they have completely different environments, then they appear in complementary distribution. Which means that they are allophones of the same phoneme. An /l/ sounds produced with the tip vs the blade of the tongue are considered the same in English, as native speakers do not hear a difference between the two. This is an example of complementary distribution.  This pattern of the /l/ pronunciation can be made into a chart, if you can do this, that is another indicator of complementary distribution. 10/10/16 It is important to know how sounds can group together. A given pronunciation will change, and that will not impact just one sound, but the whole group of sounds. Natural classes  Groups of sounds that have at least one phonetic property in common are called natural classes  Phonological rules apply to natural classes of sounds  Distinctive features o Features are the atomic particles that make up segments o They describe particular dimensions of the articulatory gesture o Features are usually binary (have + or – the original value) o They are in most cases similar to the articulatory descriptions of phonetics  [+ or – Consonantal] o Consonant (+) o Vowel (-)  [+ or – Syllabic] o Forms a syllabic nucleus (+)  All vowels o Not a nucleus (-)  [+ or – Sonorant] o Sonorant (+) vowels, nasals, glides, liquids o Obstruent (-) stops, fricatives, affricates obstr nasals liquids glides vowels cons + + + - - syll - - - - + son - + + + +  [+ or – voice] o voiced (+) o voiceless (-)  [+ or – spread glottis] o aspirated (+) o unaspirated (-)  [+ or – continuant] o Allows airflow (+) vowels, flides, liquids, fricatives o Does not allow airflow (-) all others  [+ or – nasal] o Lowered velum (+) nasals o Raised velum (-) all others  [+ or – lateral] o [l] (+) o all others (-)  [+ or – sibilant] hissing quality of consonants o Coronal fricatives and affricates (+) using the teeth or blade o all others (-)  Place features cont o [+labial] = lips o [+coronal = tongue o [+anterior] = front of the mouth o [+palatal] = palatals o [+velar/dorsal] = back or body of the tongue  Using + and + is logically impossible Phonology: is the study of the mental organization of a language’s sound system In the brain we have units of organization to store sounds Units of organization:  Biggest: syllables  Middle: segments  Smallest: features Segmental phonology  Hundreds of possible speech sounds, but a given language will choose a specified subset to use  Phonologists find interest in the contrast of a given language  To identify contrast is to see if the meaning changes Minimal pairs: two words that are nearly identical, but have a difference in only one segment. They will form a minimal pair if the meaning has been changed  Pad vs bad o /p/ and /b/ contrast in English [phoneme]  Pat vs pat^h o Does not change the meaning, not a minimal pair /t/ vs /t^h/ do not contrast. Speakers will lump them together and think of them the same [allophone] If sounds contrast, then they are phonemes  // Phonemes are an abstract mental unit. They are not the sounds themselves  [ ] Allophones are a difference in pronunciation, but they do not have a different meaning. They are the various pronunciations of phonemes.


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