5 Aggression Psychology
5 Aggression Psychology PSYC 231 - 02
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tori on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 231 - 02 at Montclair State University taught by Eman Warraich-Gibson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Aggression in Psychology (PSYC) at Montclair State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
Chapter 5: Media Violence and Aggression Introduction Questions What is the significance of the link between violent media and aggressive behavior? Aggression has been seen as a result of media violence; is it also important to acknowledge other adverse effects of media violence, such as fear? How prevalent are forms of violence in media? What are short-term effects of violent media on aggressive behaviors and thoughts? What are long-term effects of violent media on aggressive behaviors and thoughts? Can pornography be considered a type of violent media? How can the negative effects of media violence be prevented? I. Prevalence and use of violent media A. Two ways to prove that media violence produces harmful effects 1. Evidence that violent content is widely present in media a. National Television Violence Study in 2002 found that programs directed at children not only demonstrated violence, but also demonstrated more positive consequences of violence b. An examination of reality television in 2010 contained on average 42.5 aggressive acts per hour c. An analysis of 33 best-selling video games in 1998 found that 79% contained violence d. An analysis in 2004 of 396 video games rated “T” for Teen found that 94% contained violence e. An analysis of music videos in 2002 found an average rate of 15% violence 29% violence rate was found in rap videos, which was significantly greater than other genres 12% violence rate in rock videos 9% violence rate in rhythm and blues videos 2. Evidence that exposure to such content is significant among all ages a. An examination of 74 animated films rated “G” (approved for a general audience of all ages) found that each and every film contained at least one scene of violence b. A careful examination of 47 Disney films found a total 584 acts of aggression B. A 2004 study recorded the percentage of violent acts in television gun use compared to video game gun use 1. 92% of scenes from television involved lethal violence, while 99% from video games 2. 33% of scenes from television were presented as justified violence, while an astounding 95% in video games were presented as such 3. While 43% of scenes involving a gun resulted in punishment from television, there were no cases of negative consequences resulting from gun use portrayed in video games C. A survey conducted in the USA in 2008 discovered that 97% of teenagers from the ages of 12 to 17 reported playing video games 1. 31% reported playing video games every day 2. Nearly a third of teenagers who participated in the survey reported that at least one of their three favorite games were rated “M” for Mature audiences II. How strong is the link between media violence and aggression? A. Research design and examples 1. Cross-sectional studies relating self-reports to observations or peer nominations a. A sample of 1688 seventh- and eighth-grade students were studied in 2011 b. Each student reported their use of violent media among television series, films, and video games c. Class teachers provided ratings of each student’s aggressive and prosocial behaviors in class d. More aggressive behavior was reported among the kids who reported using more violent media e. The more participants used violent media, the more they considered aggressive acts to be socially acceptable 2. Experimental studies that randomly assign participants to conditions and then observes the short-term effects a. An experiment conducted in 2005 randomly assigned participants to three different conditions of playing the same racing video games Condition 1: killing pedestrians and competitors was rewarded with points Condition 2: killing pedestrians and competitors was punished by deducting points Condition 3: killing pedestrians and competitors was not possible b. Blood pressure and pulse of the participants were recorded as they were playing the video game c. Both conditions where killing pedestrians and competitors was possible caused higher levels of aggression, but in condition 1 where killing was rewarded, there were significantly higher levels of aggression d. The finding that violence led to rewards promoted aggressive thoughts e. The condition that did not allow killing were found to have little to no state hostility afterwards 3. Longitudinal studies that follow the same group of participants over a period of time to study long-term effects a. A study of 875 participants that carried on from 1960 to 1982 b. Participants first assessed as children, then at the age of 18, and then 30 c. Exposure to media violence was measured by asking the parents to name the child’s favorite TV shows d. Exposure to media violence reassessed at 18, as well as their levels of aggression, then reassessed once again at 30 e. Criminal offences of the participants were collected f. No link was found between media violence and aggression in females g. Clear evidence that the amount males were exposed to media violence as children was a predictor of aggressive behavior in the future for a period as long as 22 years B. Evidence from meta-analyses 1. Many people are still critics of the idea that media violence is a cause of aggression 2. Criteria developed to separate good-quality studies from poor-quality studies a. Study could be classified as good if a violent video game was compared to a completely non-violent video game, not just one with less violence b. Study could be classified as good if measures of violent game playing was measure rather than merely time spent playing 3. It still cannot be said that violent media use determines aggressive behavior a. This is similar to saying “not every drunk driver will get in an accident” b. While violent media use can certainly increase the risk of aggressive behaviors, it does not exactly increase aggressive behaviors III. Explaining the short-term effects of media violence use A. Exposure to violent media leads to an increase in psychological and affective arousal in the form of anger and hostility 1. Increased arousal could possibly enhance a person’s activity level 2. A person who is in a state of increased arousal could add to their levels of aggression when provoked B. Several studies have provided evidence that exposure to violent media may possibly elicit feelings of anger and hostility C. Violent media may activate aggressive thoughts and feelings 1. The more exposure to violence, the easier it is to access aggressive thoughts D. Music lyrics found to evoke strong emotions 1. Men who listened to songs that were degrading towards woman as opposed to songs with neutral lyrics were found to recall more negative attributes of women and would even behave more aggressively towards a female examiner 2. Women who listened to songs with men-hating lyrics displayed more aggressive to all males E. Playing a violent video game for only 10 minutes was found to increase aggressive thoughts F. Short-term effects of media violence are found to resemble human imitation 1. A majority of aggression displayed in the media is either rewarded or not punished 2. Aggression is usually displayed by characters that people can easily relate to a. When it is easier to identify with a character, it is more likely one will learn through imitation b. This is evident with “copycat killings”
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