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by: Casey Shore

philosophy PHIL 112 07

Casey Shore

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About this Document

This covers what we have went over in class this week. Don't forget to work on your papers.
Introduction: Ethics and Society
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Shore on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 112 07 at Radford University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction: Ethics and Society in Philosophy at Radford University.

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Date Created: 10/15/16
Review: The test is a combination of fill in the blank, “matching”, and short answer. 3 Criteria: (This will show up a lot) 1) Consistency with Considered Judgement, if its inconsistent, then it is probably not a good theory to follow and abided by. 2) Consistency with moral experiences, there’s a fact of the matter so some people are wrong or right. 3) Usefulness on moral problem solving, utilitarianism in general, virtue ethics is the big one you should know here, and social contract theory. 4) Mil = Utilitarianism = Maximize happiness. If it is too demanding it may not be the best choice for you. 5) Method for determining Higher vs. Lower. If all or almost all who have experienced Pleasure 1 and Pleasure 2, if Pleasure 1 is preferred then its higher. You should maximize utility. He thinks this will lead us to higher morally thought/ actions. 6) Thomas Hobbes = Social Contract Theory. Equality+ Egoism- Government =State of Nature (competition, glory, and distrust). Human Condition brings out authority in some people which “saves” us from one another. 7) State of Nature= life is nasty, brutish, and short! 8) Basically you can’t be super smart and super strong, while not being defeated by a combination of the two from someone else. Egoism= Self Interest. 9) Justification for participating in society is because it is morally good for you. 10) Utilitarianism= Right thing to do. 11) Virtuous= Makes your life better, in a way this could be considered selfish because you are thinking about what is best for you. People you should know about 12) Philips- 13) Thomas Hobbes- Social Contract Theory. 14) Aristotle- credited as the first genuine scientists, basically thinks everyone should be or wants to be happy (human flourishing- You can’t be completely happy for more than a day) 15) Mil= Utilitarianism = Maximizes happiness – too demanding. 16) Singer- If you have extra of anything then you should give according to what you have. 17) Socrates- Socratic Irony= idea that he asked people their theories and they would claim to know more than they actually did, so he would prove they had no idea what they were talking about. Socratic method- you need to be able to think clearly, no influences needed on Socratic method. This is valuable for everyone and can be utilized by everyone. You should know the good and bad things about each theory! Think of Act and Rule- Utilitarianism as anonymous Act-Utilitarianism= is not consistent with our considered judgements about justice. In many possible scenarios, the action that maximizes utility in a situation also seems blatantly unjust. Likewise, the theory seems to collide with our notions of rights and obligations. Again, it seems relatively easy to imagine scenarios in which utility is maximized while rights or obligations are shortchanged. An act-utilitarianism respond to these points by saying that such examples are unrealistic—that in real life, actions thought to be immoral almost never maximize happiness. Rule-Utilitarianism=has been accused of being internally inconsistent—of easily collapsing into act-utilitarianism. The charger is that the rules that maximize happiness best are specific to particular cases, but such rules would sanction the same actions that act-utilitarianism does. Utilitarianism- is the view that the morally right action is the one that produces the most favorable balance of good over evil, everyone considered. The golden Mean: The doctrine of the mean- every ethical virtue is a condition intermediate between two other states, one involving excess, and the other deficiency.


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