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MUS 104 Exam 2 notes

by: Rachel Branson

MUS 104 Exam 2 notes MUS 104

Rachel Branson
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

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About this Document

goes over info covered in class for the next test.
Music Appreciation
James Kolacek
Class Notes
Music History, Music Appreciation, Music
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Branson on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 104 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by James Kolacek in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Music Appreciation in Music at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 10/15/16
9-21-16 WW2 1945  USO concerts  “V records”, victory records sold to soldiers  radio, discussing progress of the war  feud between big three companies o ASCAP (American Society of Artists and Producers) copy write  Some money from sales goes to ASCAP, rest goes to publishers and writers  Wanted to get money from radio  Tin Pan Alley o BMI (Broadcasting Music Industry)  Made in opposition to ASCAP  Country, some smaller startups o AFM (music union)  2 year recording ban (1942-44)  helped smaller labels gain popularity  Capital records began around this time  Southern artists move out of rural areas and into urban, promoting country  Andrew Sisters o Created tight, three part harmony o Paired w a lot of famous artists (bing Crosby) o Country western  Common subjects in blues and country: cheating and booze o Religion o Wild west  Al Dexter o “Pistol Packin Mama”  Roy Acoff o “great speckled bird”  popularized image of singing cowboy o Gene Autry – one of most popular singing cowboy  “home on the range,” “Rudolph the red nose reindeer”  western swing o started in texas o blend of folk country and jazz harmony o Bob Willis and the Texas Playboys - most famous bands  Steel guitar  Chess records o Indie label specializing in “r&b” o Defined “chicago blues” styles o Some of the best blues records of the day o Common themes: sex, booze, cheating o Muddy Waters  Guitar player  “Hoochie Coochie Man”  started stop time blues riff o electric guitar, (rowdy) harmonica o Howlin Wolf  Some guitar, more harmonica player  “Backdoor Man”  hide yo kids hide yo wife  records targeting younger crowd o ppl under 21 made up 1/3 of record buyers o crooners like boy bands  Frank Sinatra  Nat “King” Cole  Long career  “The Christmas Song”  “Mona Lisa” 9-26-16 Rhythm & Blues  Almost exclusively black artists for black listeners  Shaped by WW2 veterans  4 types o "jump “ bands/blues  heavily influenced by boogie woogie  similar to count basie  first commercially successful category of blues music  1946-1956  party music, humorous lyrics, wild stage performance  Louis Jordan  Band called Tympany Five  First band to appeal to black and white listeners  2 trumpets, 2 saxes, bass, piano, drums  “Choo-Choo Cha Boogie” o Chicago Electric Blues  Dirtiest, grimy blues  nasty harmonica, no horns  Directly from delta blues  Robert Johnson  Muddy Waters  Most popular blues musician in Chicago  Defined sound of Chicago blues & chess records  Invented stop time rhythm  “Hoochie Coochie Man”  Howlin Wolf  “Backdoor Man”  blues crooners o Nat “King” Cole  Had trio during war  Cooler sound before his more orchestral music o Cecil Gant  Nasally  “I Wonder” o Charles Brown  Most successful of late 40’s – early 50’s  Nationally popular  Recorded ten of the top 10 hits  Dapper, gracious, handsome, portrayed ease  Cocktail blues  “Driftin Blues”  vocal harmony groups o now known as “doo-wop”, popular in the 50’s o many groups made up of highschoolers in black communities o The Dominoes  Harder edge sound  first group to cross over the charts interracially  “Have Mercy Baby”  “Sixty-Minute Man”  first big hit  Johnnie Ray o White man jumping on board w R&B o 1950’s o Bridged gap between crooners and Elvis o Partially deaf since childhood o Over-the-top performance appealed to teens o “Cry”  reached top of both popular and R&B charts o only white performer to top black charts 1946-1956  Women of R&B o Ruth Brown  Most popular black female vocalist 1951-1954  Known as Miss Rhythm  “Mama He Treats Your Daughter Mean”  signature upward “squeal thing” o Big Mama Thornton  Daughter of Baptist minister in texas  Did original version of “Hound Dog” 1953  Deep, raspy voice expressed female power, never before heard Read chp 13 9-28-16 Rock n Roll 1954 – 1959  Hillbilly and r&b dominating charts o No longer for one specific audience  Baby boomers o post WWI o main audience  TV invented o Instantaneous, nationwide distribution of music o Performance style becomes important  Teenagers opposite of tin pan alley  Vocal styles o Harsh, raw, threatening  Lyrics o Suggestive and explicit (cheating, sex, drinking)  Instruments o Played louder o Electric guitar  Emotion o Exciting and fun for young audiences  R&B becomes popular w young white kids  Alan freed o Disc jockey, champion of R&B, “pied piper of R&B” o Supported black artists by helping promote to mixed audiences (integration) o Original show in Cleveland, moved to NYC, on radio station WINS o Incredibly influential  Total annual record sales from 191 mil to 514 mil after WWI  R&B and hillbilly from indie labels attract more attention than big labels still doing Tin Pan Alley songs (crooners)  Mix of different genres in popular music  Bill Haley o Originally western swing band leader o Changed from “The Saddlemen” to “The Comets” o Covered “Shake Rattle and Roll” w more boogie woogie style  Most popular song  Inspired by Louis Jordan, jump blues style  Originally by Big Joe Turner o “Rock Around the Clock”  1954  absolute most popular song, top for 8 weeks  first guitar solo on the radio  original R&B Artists o Chuck Berry  black  Revolutionary on tv  Addressed songs to teens of all races  Guitar player  “Maybelline” hit song o Little Richard  Extreme performer  Lots of makeup  falsetto trait  “Tutti Frutti”, “Long Tail Sally” o Fats Domino  From NOLA  Laid back style  “Ain’t that a shame”, “blueberry hill” 9-30-16 Rock n Roll Stars from Country Backgrounds  Elvis Presley (1935-1977) o Discovered by Sam Phillips, owner of Sun Records  Also had johnny cash, jerry lee lewis, carl perkins o First record “That’s Alright Momma”  Way more country o 1955, RCA Victor bought him out of sun records label and he started doing rock music o producer chet afkins made sure his sound was “pop friendly” o 1956, “Don’t Be Cruel” came out  mix of different popular elements to appeal to wider audience  vocal accompaniment by the Jordanaires o “Hound Dog” cover  b side of “don’t be cruel”  more r&b sound o ed Sullivan show (most pop show on tv, vintage Tonight Show) always filmed him waist up, thought his hip was vulgar  Jerry Lee Lewis o “Great Balls of Fire” o crazy piano playing his signature move o rockabilly  Buddy Holly o Guitarist, made solid body guitar popular o Began in country, influenced by elvis o Formed rock and roll band called The Crickets  Insect band name, instrument lineup, and vocal backup inspire the beatles o “That’ll be the Day” o died in a plane crash w two other big artists  inspired song “american pie” (“the day the music died”)  Wanda Jackson o Queen of rockabilly o Sounds like a raspy gremlin o “let’s have a party”  signature “woooo”  Connie Francis o First woman recording star of rock n roll era o “stupid cupid” o more appealing to white audiences than wanda Jackson  Brenda Lee o “I’m sorry,” “Sweet Nothin’s” o called Little Miss Dynamite  4’9” 10-3-16 Songwriter and Producer  Producer’s role took prominence in 60 w rise of recordings  Line between songwriter and performer starting to blur  Rock and roll made up of r & b, country, and vocal groups  Producers o Book time in studio o Hire musicians o Involved in recording, mixing o Shape characteristic sound of recording  Jerry leiber and mike stoller o Most innovative songwriter producing team in early years of rock and roll (1954-59) o Wrote most of elvis’s songs o Worked w band called the Coasters  “Yakity-Yak”  (1960-66)  rock and roll developed into rock music  the twist becomes big o chubby cheder made it popular  covered song “the twist” in 1960 o beat straightened out  American Bandstand o Popular dance show aimed at younger audience o Perfect venue for promoting new rock record  (producer’s role as artist)  Phil spector o Known as first tycoon of teen o music and voice mixed very cleaning, lots of percussion, large and growing string arrangement, background vocals, huge lush arrangments, lots of reverb (causes echo, changes depth)  “stand by me” sung by ben e king, written by leiber and stoller  “Be My Baby” sung by The Ronettes o given charge of his own label Phillies  created “wall of sound”  Barry Gordy Jr o Founded Motown records in Detroit in 1960 o First black owned and controlled indie label to rise to popular status o Rooted in doo wop, sharply dressed, always had choreography, strict code of conduct o Funk Brothers band  James jamberson – bass  Benny Benjamin – drums  Earl van dyke – organ, keys, bandleader o Standing in the Shadows of Motown on Netflix o “My Girl” the temptations  First number one record for Motown o Motown drum fill in every song o “You can’t hurry love” Diana Ross and the Supremes o “I can’t help myself” the 4 tops 10-5-16  Marvin Gaye o “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” w Tammi Terrell 1966 o became popular when he did duets w Tammi Terrell  surf rock o from California o mostly instrumental, guitar driven, lots of reverb o fast picking, “clapclap, clap” o “Miserlou” by dick dale o The Ventures  Most pop surf rock group  Hawaii 5-O  The Beach Boys o Mix of music popular in California and nation  Doo wop w surf rock influence o Brian Wilson o “I get around” first popular record o unusual melody, chords o “Pet sounds”  1966 record  “god only knows” 10-12-16 Country Western Patsy Cline  Country western  Famous crossover artist of the 60’s  One of first ladies to headline her own tours  First lady inducted in country hall of fame  “walking after midnight” o first hit record o steel guitar (good identifier, most lady singers back then didn’t) o AABA o Took influences from blues, R&B  “crazy” w/ the Jordanaires o biggest hit o written by willy nelson o AABA Skeeter Davis  Began career w sister, the Davis Sisters o Sister died in car crash  “the end of the world” o #2 on country charts o top 5 on R&B charts o sold over a million copies Soul Music  R&B starts being called soul music  gospel infused vocal  Rock and Roll infused drumming  blues infused form, lyrics, instrumentation Ray Charles  blind since 6 y/o  began career playing jazz  signed on w Atlantic  iconic piano playing  “what’d I say” 1959 o first crossover hit o stripped down o electric piano o blues form o call and response  “Georgia” 1960 o #1 on pop and R&B charts o fuller orchestra Sam Cooke  “king of soul”  one of first modern composers and artist to attend to business side of his work  big civil rights activist  “a change is gonna come” o civil rights anthem  “twisting the night away” o one of his first hits  short career, shot by hotel manager, “justifiable homicide” James Brown  “godfather of soul”  known as hardest working man in show business  no other single musician influenced black music as much  “papa’s got a brand new bag” o hit song of the 60’s o blues form  distinctive dance style Aretha Franklin  piano player  “dr feelgood” 10-14-16 Aretha Franklin  “queen of soul”  preachers daughter  jerry Wexler o producer at atlantic that let her do more soul sound o going for more stax sound  raw power in voice  really good piano player  symbolized female empowerment in her records  “respect” o written by Otis redding o 1967 o based on Motown music, small band and backup singers o rougher, less produced sound than motown Otis Redding  quit school at 15 to do music, played in little Richie  joined Stax label o Motown competitor in Memphis o Made Memphis soul  “these arms of mine” o 1962 o slower, early 60s sound  “Sitting on the Dock of the Bay” o 1967  killed in plane crash in 1967 Review  25 listening examples o Know the artists  Boogie woogie  Andrew sisters  Country western (gene autry, hank williams)  Crooner (nat king cole)  Cecil grant  Chicago electric blues (howlin wolf)  Doo wop (the chords)  Ruth brown, big mama thorton  Rock and roll (Bill Hayley and the comets)  Chuck berry  Fats domino  Elvis, jerry lee lewis  Patsy cline  Chubby checker  Beach boys  Marvin gay  James brown  Sam cooke  Aretha franklin, Otis redding  Producer phil spector 28040


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