HIST 114 Week Six Notes
HIST 114 Week Six Notes HIST 114-001
Popular in American History Up Unitl 1877
Popular in American History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Siegesmund on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 114-001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Ott in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see American History Up Unitl 1877 in American History at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
Key Terms Key Ideas GB = Great Britain NA = Native Americans Extra Notes from Last Week: Noah Webster is an advocate of land reform as a source of equality Adam Smith – economic liberty, Wealth of Nations White male patriarchy – society organized around white man’s control over others Reinforced, built a monarchy Revolution takes power from king, but patriarchy is still in control Everyone wants equality, elites take over because they have the most property, money, connections which limits democracy Founding a Nation Articles of Confederation (1781) Weakens Federal Government, based on friendship One house congress and no president o Congress has many duties such as declaring war, foreign affairs, and creating treaties o Can also take out debt o However, no one had power over taxes or trade except states Requisition Taking on debt for army to defeat British o Requisitioning taxes o Say they want a certain amount, but states decided whether or not to tax their people o Do not think of themselves as a whole, but separate states Doesn’t get ratified for 4 years o 13 out of 13 states have to agree for it to pass Worries about becoming a tyranny End of Revolutionary War Get a bunch of land through Treaty of Paris in 1783 o Britain recognized sovereignty of US o Western boundary of US is at the Mississippi River o Government must decide what to do with the land Raise money by selling it Give it away to give citizens more independence and rights Squatters o People go out west to settle Young families, white men Ignores NA groups US is now on their own/separate from GB o No more British troops o Economic depression over time Thomas Jefferson’s Vision Key Terms Key Ideas GB = Great Britain NA = Native Americans Wants 9 or more states (new, independent) (spread of democracy) No slavery Wants to give away land o Deny land to rich, speculators, landlords o Distribute land to be disinterested Worried that the democratic experiment will fall apart Land Ordinance of 1785 Figure out way to distribute land Public Land Survey System o Speeds up process of land acquisition o Replaces Metes and Bounds Surveyor measures land that you want Crazy boundaries and shapes Overlapping Could already be occupied Corruption Super slow 6x6 mile square areas with 36 square mile sections that equal 640 acres o However, land was purchased for $1 an acre, but only the entire square, so only the wealthy could afford it Immediately in conflict with NA or squatters in plots bought without looking first Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Process for adding new states Appointed officials in a certain territory o Would create/adapt laws and appoint magistrates Needed 5,000 property-owning men who would elect government over their territory and send a non-voting member to go to congress If you got 60,000 to petition congress to join and you had to write a constitution There was no slavery in the Northwest region, but the slave fugitive clause still applied Makes 3-5 new states vs. 9 If a slave escapes to NW territory, must be returned, not free o Sets up slave section vs free section o Reinforces slavery Shay’s Rebellion Requisition Farmers in MA rebel because they want tax relief, changes to the MA Constitution o Huge ask of money to state from congress ($3 Million) States have own economic crisis Not as good trade without British ties Key Terms Key Ideas GB = Great Britain NA = Native Americans o Goods coming from overseas are cheaper and local artisans are not protected Some will tax heavily – have to pay in gold/silver which is a burden Some began printing money – will inflate o Seize courthouses when their proposals are ignored o They head to Boston to burn it, but a local militia forms John Adams believes rebels should suffer death Very tyrannical “The last battle of the revolution” o Reinforcing existing power structures (elite) o Sing same language as revolutionaries, same words Turning point towards Nationalism The Federalists Want to strengthen Federal authority and protect property John Adams and Alexander Hamilton Army Officers, diplomats, congressmen, bond holders, artisans, merchants o Artisans want tariffs o Merchants want market May 1787, delegate meets in Philadelphia to end Articles of Confederation o Propose putting together a new form of government The Constitutional Convention Do not represent entirety of American people o 55 white men, 2/3 lawyers o No farmers, laborers, or artisans o ½officers in the army o 7 had been governors o Over 50% are college educated Met in secret at the Pennsylvania State House o Need better trade policy o Throw out Articles RI not involved Constitution Three branches: legislative, executive, judiciary “Big Compromise” – between Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan which led to two senate members per state and representatives for the house of representatives based off the population of the state, created those two branches within legislative branch Electoral college chooses Vice President and President o No direct representation as time goes on o Direct voting vs. represented voting “Balanced Government” with “checks and balances” Key Terms Key Ideas GB = Great Britain NA = Native Americans Democracy vs. Republicanism The Constitution and Slavery Southern slave-owners were majority Wanted to protect slavery in Constitution without using the words for it o Atlantic Trade was allowed to continue for another 20 years o Enacted the Slave Fugitive Clause o 3/5 Clause 3/5 of slave population towards the state’s representation South will be over-represented, more votes North agrees because wants to make country work Not many enlightened views about race Ratification? 9 out of 13 need to ratify starting fall of 1787 Special “ratification conventions” of newly elected delegates to decide whether or not to ratify The Federalist Papers helped approve it o Alexander Hamilton writes 50 letters o John Adams writes 30 Campaign to ratify the Constitution 9 states by Jun 1788 and 13 by May 1790 o Rhode Island wanted to be alone Believed they were doing well on their own No one will have control because of different cultures, etc. Slow system because balance of power Anti-Federalists State politicians, small farmers, and some abolitionists 90% are farmers Popular in large and powerful states where they felt they didn’t need to obey a government or have government help o New York or Virginia Worried about centralized power and favoring creditors over the indebted Worried, constitution will abolish or support slavery Demanded Bill of Rights, only way they would ratify the Constitution The Bill of Rights Ratified in 1791 to help get Constitution ratified Listed extra amendments to the Constitution, mostly involving the rights of American citizens Madison thought it was no use because government was structured to prevent abuses o Also, parchment barriers Key Terms Key Ideas GB = Great Britain NA = Native Americans The inability of the Bill of Rights to protect citizens from government overreach, especially when in conflict or there is turmoil Suspension of rights in times of conflict Totally ignored when most needed
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