PSYC222, Psychology of Personality
PSYC222, Psychology of Personality Psyc 222 (Psychology of Personality)
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsay Kennedy on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 222 (Psychology of Personality) at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Hittner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychology at College of Charleston.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
PSYC222—Psychology of Personality Henry Murray Cont. Murray’s list of 20 needs cont. o Harm avoidance o Those who don’t avoid harm = behaviorally disinhibited Behavioral disinhibator: risk factor You could get physically hurt, higher risk for alcoholism Longitudinal study of behavioral disinhibition o Look at kids age 1014 and give them a score o Check on them at age of 27 and look at alcohol abuse and dependency o Findings If you sore higher for behavioral disinhibition and have bad family practices, your risk of engaging in alcohol abuse increases If you grow up in a good family environment, the alcohol abuse criteria risk doesn’t change with higher behavioral disinhibition scores (buffering affect) Needs o Primary (viscerogenic) needs: basic biological needs Ex: eat, drink, sleep, go to the bathroom Genic = caused by o Secondary (psychogenic) needs: needs caused by psychological factors o Overt (manifest) needs: needs we feel comfortable showing the real world Ex: need to affiliate and get together with friends o Covert (latent) needs: needs that we have but don’t feel comfortable expressing Afraid to share with others These needs can come out in dream states or fanaticizing o Proactive needs: you’re acting on a need o Reactive needs: Ex: you’re walking down the street and someone starts antagonizing you so you become aggressive Proactive needs can also be reactive o Prepotency: when 2 needs are aroused simultaneously The more physiologically demanding need will be satisfied first o Regnant process: they physiological aftereffect of acting on a need Ex: you haven’t worked out; you go lift a lot; you become sore There’s always some sort of aftereffect in the brain from working on a need Press o Presses: environmental factors that influence our behavior Ex: need expression Either facilitate or hinder behavior o Alpha press: objective environment that everyone can agree on Everybody got a 75% on their test o Beta press: subjective interpretation on environment Ex: everybody’s response to getting a 75% on their test Beta presses usually have a greater influence on behavior o Large discrepancies between the 2 types of presses are important If your beta press is always different from the alpha press, there can be problems Look at needs and presses together Theme/thema: represents the interaction between needs and presses o Allows for a more global view of behavior Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) o Murry and Christiana Morgan (1935)—widely used projective personality test o Objective vs. projective tests Objective: fixed/forced response Projective: no set fixed response options (infinite number of responses) o TAT: there’s a card of people doing regular things Tell me a story about this card People’s stories tell things about them; your stories reveal your needs Compares people’s stories to a collection of stories stored up in past—tells you about themes and themas o TAT and Questionnaire measures of motives: do they measure different aspects of motives? McClelland argues that responses to TAT and questionnaires measures are not correlated because they measure 2 different types of motivation TAT measures implicit motivation: unconscious desires, motives, needs People like that the TAT is hard for the client to know what the therapist is trying to get at because it’s like a game Gets around people’s defense mechanisms Questionnaires measure explicit (conscious) motivation: reflect a person’s selfawareness of conscious motives It’s easy for the person to figure out what is being assessed Implicit motives better predict long term behavioral trends overtime Explicit motives better predict responses to immediate, specific situations and to choice behaviors and attitudes o TAT can attain good reliability, but there are validity concerns How adequately does the test measure what it purports to measure? Reliability: can different individuals come up with the same conclusions from the TAT responses? Yes! They can Rorschach Ink Blot Test: another projective personality test Albert Bandura (b.1925) Social Learning Theory Reciprocal Determinism (Triadic Reciprocal Causation) o Ex: depressed person, that will have an effect on relationships, people may start moving toward you because you’re moving away, that makes you feel bad and you pull away more… etc All 3 of these things influence each other When approaching helping a depressed person you don’t have to start with the person themselves, you could start with their behavior or their environment Person variable: selfefficacy Importance of selfefficacy o Selfefficacy (efficacy expectancy): how competent and capable you feel Strong selfefficacy: feeling capable of achieving a certain task o Outcome expectancy: how you think the thing you do will turn out; what you think will happen o Extreme scenarios High SE, high OE: confidence Low SE, low OE: apathy; helplessness High SE, low OE: frustrated Low SE, high OE: depression, lowered selfesteem Modeling/Observational Learning o The “Bobo Doll” studies (Bandura and Walters, 1963) Kids go into observational rooms and watch adults playing with bobo dolls. Then kids go in room and play with Bobo Dolls themselves Some watch aggressive play, some watch civil play o Findings Children model adult aggression o Characteristics of the MODEL: similarity, attractiveness, complexity of the behavior We learn from people who are similar to us, who we find attractive, and who perform behaviors on our level o Characteristics of the OBSESRVER: unskilled, not feeling competent, low self esteem, dependent/conforming If you feel these ways you are more inclined to learn from models o Positive and negative outcome experiences: if you don’t see the skill as benefitting you and your life, you won’t care about learning from the model You’re more likely to model a behavior if you think it will produce a positive result Dr. Hittner: alcohol related outcome expectancies o After acquiring a behavior, we improve upon our performance through practice and feedback Exception to feedback: asking an expert to think about their performance can often interfere with their performance o Television and Aggression: these theories affected hen certain TV shows were shown Anderson et. al. (2010): MetaAnalysis: Violent Videogame Effects on Aggression, Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior o MetaAnalysis: a quantitative research synthesis A way to review research findings on a certain subject You look at their findings and look at them statistically o Findings: violent video game exposure increased aggressive behavior, aggression cognition, and aggressive affect Violent video game exposure decreased empathy and prosocial behavior General consistent pattern crossculturally and across gender Different pattern across the ages: difficult to test because many ages aren’t actively playing video games BanduraPsychotherapy o Increasing selfefficacy Guided mastery training: mainly focused on clients with anxiety issues or phobias Bandura would act as a efficacious role model; then the client would come up and engage in the correct behavior and get feedback Modeling therapy: only using the modeling part of guided mastery training Verbal persuasion: encouragement to increase selfefficacy Relaxation training, meditation, yoga, etc. Reducing anxious arousal can increase efficacy
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