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PSYC222, Psychology of Personality

by: Lindsay Kennedy

PSYC222, Psychology of Personality Psyc 222 (Psychology of Personality)

Lindsay Kennedy
C of C

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About this Document

These notes cover Henry Murray, needs and presses, TAT, and Albert Bandura
Psychology of Personality
Dr. Hittner
Class Notes
Psychology, personalitypsychology, HenryMurray, Murray, bandura, albertbandura, TAT
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsay Kennedy on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 222 (Psychology of Personality) at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Hittner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychology at College of Charleston.

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Date Created: 10/15/16
PSYC222—Psychology of Personality Henry Murray Cont.  Murray’s list of 20 needs cont. o Harm avoidance o Those who don’t avoid harm = behaviorally disinhibited  Behavioral disinhibator: risk factor  You could get physically hurt, higher risk for alcoholism  Longitudinal study of behavioral disinhibition o Look at kids age 10­14 and give them a score o Check on them at age of 27 and look at alcohol abuse and dependency o Findings  If you sore higher for behavioral disinhibition and have bad family  practices, your risk of engaging in alcohol abuse increases  If you grow up in a good family environment, the alcohol abuse criteria  risk doesn’t change with higher behavioral disinhibition scores (buffering  affect)  Needs o Primary (viscerogenic) needs: basic biological needs   Ex: eat, drink, sleep, go to the bathroom  Genic = caused by o Secondary (psychogenic) needs: needs caused by psychological factors o Overt (manifest) needs: needs we feel comfortable showing the real world  Ex: need to affiliate and get together with friends o Covert (latent) needs: needs that we have but don’t feel comfortable expressing  Afraid to share with others  These needs can come out in dream states or fanaticizing o Proactive needs: you’re acting on a need o Reactive needs:   Ex: you’re walking down the street and someone starts antagonizing you  so you become aggressive  Proactive needs can also be reactive o Prepotency: when 2 needs are aroused simultaneously  The more physiologically demanding need will be satisfied first o Regnant process: they physiological aftereffect of acting on a need  Ex: you haven’t worked out; you go lift a lot; you become sore  There’s always some sort of aftereffect in the brain from working on a  need  Press o Presses: environmental factors that influence our behavior  Ex: need expression  Either facilitate or hinder behavior o Alpha press: objective environment that everyone can agree on  Everybody got a 75% on their test o Beta press: subjective interpretation on environment  Ex: everybody’s response to getting a 75% on their test  Beta presses usually have a greater influence on behavior o Large discrepancies between the 2 types of presses are important  If your beta press is always different from the alpha press, there can be  problems  Look at needs and presses together  Theme/thema: represents the interaction between needs and presses o Allows for a more global view of behavior  Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) o Murry and Christiana Morgan (1935)—widely used projective personality test o Objective vs. projective tests  Objective: fixed/forced response  Projective: no set fixed response options (infinite number of responses) o TAT: there’s a card of people doing regular things  Tell me a story about this card  People’s stories tell things about them; your stories reveal your needs  Compares people’s stories to a collection of stories stored up in past—tells you about themes and themas o TAT and Questionnaire measures of motives: do they measure different aspects of motives?  McClelland argues that responses to TAT and questionnaires measures are not correlated because they measure 2 different types of motivation  TAT measures implicit motivation: unconscious desires, motives, needs  People like that the TAT is hard for the client to know what the  therapist is trying to get at because it’s like a game  Gets around people’s defense mechanisms  Questionnaires measure explicit (conscious) motivation: reflect a person’s  self­awareness of conscious motives  It’s easy for the person to figure out what is being assessed  Implicit motives better predict long term behavioral trends overtime  Explicit motives better predict responses to immediate, specific situations  and to choice behaviors and attitudes o TAT can attain good reliability, but there are validity concerns  How adequately does the test measure what it purports to measure?  Reliability: can different individuals come up with the same conclusions  from the TAT responses?  Yes! They can  Rorschach Ink Blot Test: another projective personality test Albert Bandura (b.1925) Social Learning Theory  Reciprocal Determinism (Triadic Reciprocal Causation) o Ex: depressed person, that will have an effect on relationships, people may start  moving toward you because you’re moving away, that makes you feel bad and  you pull away more… etc  All 3 of these things influence each other  When approaching helping a depressed person you don’t have to  start with the person themselves, you could start with their  behavior or their environment  Person variable: self­efficacy  Importance of self­efficacy o Self­efficacy (efficacy expectancy): how competent and capable you feel   Strong self­efficacy: feeling capable of achieving a certain task o Outcome expectancy: how you think the thing you do will turn out; what you  think will happen o Extreme scenarios  High SE, high OE: confidence  Low SE, low OE: apathy; helplessness  High SE, low OE: frustrated  Low SE, high OE: depression, lowered self­esteem  Modeling/Observational Learning o The “Bobo Doll” studies (Bandura and Walters, 1963)  Kids go into observational rooms and watch adults playing with bobo  dolls. Then kids go in room and play with Bobo Dolls themselves  Some watch aggressive play, some watch civil play o Findings  Children model adult aggression o Characteristics of the MODEL: similarity, attractiveness, complexity of the  behavior  We learn from people who are similar to us, who we find attractive, and  who perform behaviors on our level o Characteristics of the OBSESRVER: unskilled, not feeling competent, low self­ esteem, dependent/conforming  If you feel these ways you are more inclined to learn from models o Positive and negative outcome experiences: if you don’t see the skill as  benefitting you and your life, you won’t care about learning from the model  You’re more likely to model a behavior if you think it will produce a  positive result  Dr. Hittner: alcohol related outcome expectancies o After acquiring a behavior, we improve upon our performance through practice  and feedback  Exception to feedback: asking an expert to think about their performance  can often interfere with their performance o Television and Aggression: these theories affected hen certain TV shows were  shown  Anderson et. al. (2010): Meta­Analysis: Violent Videogame Effects on Aggression,  Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior o Meta­Analysis: a quantitative research synthesis   A way to review research findings on a certain subject  You look at their findings and look at them statistically o Findings: violent video game exposure increased aggressive behavior, aggression  cognition, and aggressive affect  Violent video game exposure decreased empathy and prosocial behavior  General consistent pattern cross­culturally and across gender  Different pattern across the ages: difficult to test because many ages aren’t actively playing video games  Bandura­Psychotherapy o Increasing self­efficacy  Guided mastery training: mainly focused on clients with anxiety issues or  phobias  Bandura would act as a efficacious role model; then the client  would come up and engage in the correct behavior and get  feedback  Modeling therapy: only using the modeling part of guided mastery training  Verbal persuasion: encouragement to increase self­efficacy  Relaxation training, meditation, yoga, etc.  Reducing anxious arousal can increase efficacy 


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