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HIEA 2031

by: Jenny Oh

HIEA 2031 HIEA 2031

Jenny Oh

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Chapter 1 Notes
Modern China
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenny Oh on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIEA 2031 at University of Virginia taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 10/15/16
A History and Identity a Person's identity i Contextual sources: time, place of birth, ethnic heritage, parents' occupations, socioeconomic statues, nature of the local community, schools, and friends ii Personal characteristics: appearance, personality, habits  The shape of the past gives meaning to the present. a Person's identity is continually evolving and developing. i Identity is very fluid, provisional, tentative B Associational Identity a lineages (ancestry) and families i They are submerged in the group, with implicit responsibilities to that group ii Assertion of individual rights would immediately jeopardize family harmony and solidarity. iii Hierarchical: superior and subordinate ranks  Maleness and age outranked femaleness and youth  Elder brother Zeng Guofan could tell younger brothers what to do, and they were expected to comply  One of five "Confucian bonds" that defined cardinal relationships in Chinese society ii Responsibilities:  Superior: direct, train, provide for and control  Subordinate: obey, comply, and respect  The moral: Upholding filial piety will bring solutions to a family's (암암암) (암암) bleakest plights and ultimately happiness and prosperity i Second component of filial piety  Protect one's body as a gift from one's parents -- rise to a markedly conservative Chinese social culture ii Third aspect of filial piety  Carrying on the family line  Remembrance - ancestor reverence (암암: rituals  Lineage owned joint property  Daoism: indigenous Chinese philosophical and religious tradition that focused on nature and on aligning oneself in various ways with the forces of nature and the natural state of things A Social Connections i Friendships: from same hometown or country or province ii Academic and scholarly ties: "tensile strength" - accumulation and repayment of obligations  Ethics were traditionally determined by connections, varied with particular people and situations B Relations to the "OTHER" i Threat, suspect: Barbarians - until they could be assimilated into Han Chinese culture ii Ethnic minorities 1 Nine minorities: Mongols, Tibetans, Uighurs a Zhuang, Miao and Yi - Ethnic Chinese  Ethnicity: a system of relationships o Based more on language, customs, and culture than on race o Rationale for keeping the ethnic Other separate  Han Chinese itself was NOT homogenous A Spatial Identities A Native Place i One of the most important bases for connections - networks ii Economy: associated with particular trades and professions 1 Softened the Other status; provided assistance ii Politics: critical component in decision making and action iii Cultural development B Village and Marketing Communities A Village:  Before the late 1960s, social scientists considered the village to be the basic geographical unit in society i Small and bc of relatively large population, tended to be clustered fairly closely ii Fei: "Society without stranger" - social and cultural world that would perhaps predispose (암암암 암암its inhabitants to see what was at hand as the norm, and as good, and to be fearful and distrustful of the Other B Marketing community  Today, believe it as the most basic geographic unit shaping the horizons of the Chinese villager i The world of villager extended beyond village ii Standard market: stretching from large city all the way down, the lowest level marketing town iii Provided the general social and cultural horizons for the farmers in its villages B Macroregions and Provinces i Provinces: largest political and administrative units in the system, composed of prefectures, counties, and townships ii Macroregions: structured around the basin or valley of river or of several rivers and often surrounded by mountains 1 Have been divided into "cores" - areas of denser population, greater commercial activity, higher degrees of urbanization and economic developemnt 2 "Peripheries" - areas of sparser population, less commercial activity, lower levels of urbanization and economic development  North China  Boarded on the north by Manchuria and Mongolia  Prominent natural waterway: Yellow river  China's sorrow = propensity to flood  Lower Yangzi  Mostly flat plains  Abundance of sufficient water resources for irrigation and for easy transportation  Highest level of urbanization and the dentist population  Villages clustered along canals and waterways  Southeast Coast  Mountainous region composed of valleys of several rivers  High volume trade  Lingnan  Drainage (암암basin of the East, North, and West Rivers in the provinces of Guangxi and most of Guangdong  Northwest China  Several drought  Few navigable waterways, transport  One of the lowest population density  Middle Yangzi  Focused on water Almost continual flooding   Important arteries of trade  Upper Yangzi  Known as "heaven's storehouse" - favorable climate, rich productive farmland  Diverse population  Southwest China  Unnavigable rivers - difficult and expensive travel and transportation  More fundamental cultural diversity  Mining deposits of copper, silver, zinc, lead, cinnabar, coal and iron  Taiwan  Transformed the wild grasslands of the western part of the island into the richly productive coastal plain  Manchuria  Region of rich soil and important natural resources - mineral, timber, and water  XinJiang  Western regions  Inner Mongolia  Flat, featureless plains - immense grasslands with some deserts in the eastern Life  Tibet Distant geographically and culturally from Han China   Divided into tibetan and non-tibetan


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