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Chapter 2

by: Jenny Oh

Chapter 2 HIEA 2031

Jenny Oh

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Modern China
Class Notes
history, Modern, China
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenny Oh on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIEA 2031 at University of Virginia taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 10/15/16
 Manchus, outsiders from the Northeast, took power in 1644 --> Qing dynasty A Patterns in Early Qing pg.26 a Manchus: clan based peoples who stressed martial values based on skills of horsemanship and archery b Chinese: stressed civilian values based on skills of the writing brush c Kangxi emperor (1661-1722): greatest of the dynasty -- bubujingxin i Saw no difference between Manchus and Chinese and their ability to serve the state ii Teacher-propagandizer B Preserving Manchu Identity pg.28 a Key to upholding Manchu martial identity: maintain the banner forces - vehicles of military success b Maintaining martial values: set aside Manchuria as a permanent Manchu homeland c Continued to maintain and promote native shamanism i Shamanism: thought to have had a spiritual death and rebirth and could thus easily pass into the world of he supernatural, where they could influence events b Manchu regime tried to prevent close association between Chinese and themselves by forbidding intermarriage and outlawing business partnerships c Manchu hairstyle: Shave the front parts of their heads, let the hair in the back grow longer, and then plait that hair into pigtails. -- marked Chinese as subjects of the Outsider Manchus B Buying into Chinese Culture a Civil Service Examination pg.29-31 i Qing accepted the heart of the Chinese political, social, and cultural system -- based on imperial civil service examination and the Confucianism  Confucianism -- Confucius (Kong fuzi) -------pg. 31 o Foundation of the Han cultural system o Education: key to developing sages who could so rule the state o family and social harmony o Mandate of Heaven o Success in Major examination:  Shengyuan (gov. student)  Pass rate: 1~2%  Juren (provincial graduate)  Once every three years  Provided entryway into officialdom, not to the highest position  Jinshi (metropolitan graduate)  Oral examination at the palace administered by the emperor himself  Cant pass the honor on to his son o Required all potential officials to be trained in the same body of principles, rules, and norms o Rituals, Religions, Values (32)  Adoption of Ming state rituals crucial to assert legitimacy by linking themselves to the former legitimate imperial state o Dealing with the other (33-35)  Two approaches to dealing with outside the Chinese cultural realm  Court of Colonial Affairs (Lifanyuan) -- 1638 a. Handle its relations with the Mongols b. Supervised affairs of Lamaist organizations in Qing efforts to control both the Mongols and the Tibetans through their patronage of Lamaism (Tibetan Buddhism) c. Encouraged the growth of ethnic identities  Tributary system a. Older brother to younger brothers b. Control : kowtow (ketwou) - three prostrations, nine head knockings A Identity and Change: Qialong emperor in the late 18th Century (35-37)  Reached highest of its power and wealth during the reign of the Qianlong emperor (1736-1795)  Doubled territory  Economic prosperity -- agricultural diversification and trade  Expansion of trade  Credit and transfer needs of long distance interregional trade fueled development of native banks and new fiscal institutions a Economic growth i Social development 1 Lower Yangzi region - emergence of elite female writers 2 Monumental increase in population A Identity Crisis (37) a Emperor's Roles (Qialong) i Seizure of Xinjiang in 1755 - growing identity crisis ii Were the Manchus outsiders who, in their capacity as the head of a Chinese dynasty, were in effect becoming acculturated Chinese? Were they primarily rulers of a multiethnic empire in which the Chinese were only one part and bc of which their identity as Manchus had to remain predominant? iii Religious effort to impress non Han Chinese in the empire and to assert multicultural moral legitimacy & multilingualism b Literary Inquisition (39) i Up to 2,400 works were destroyed, an estimated 400,000 to 500,000 were edited following official decree (법법)-- reflect almost schizophrenic gov. attitude toward Chinese and Manchu identities; reflect growing tension at the court bw Chinese and Manchu factions B Emerging Problems (41) a Increasing number of social explosions i 1774 religion-inspired rebellion in Shandong province was followed in the 1780s by a secret society-based uprising in Taiwan, by 2 Muslim revolts in Gansu province, and by rebellions of aboriginal Miao tribesmen in Southwest China ii Population surge 1 Far exceeded what could be supported a Worsened by Chinese inheritance customs - land per capita was shrinking dangerously: farmers falling into bankruptcy and poverty escalated sharply B The DaoGuang Emperor (43) a Put down a Muslim uprising in Turkestan (1825-1828) i Did not pursue Muslim allies in further western campaigns b Faced ongoing financial crisis that prevented any government attempts to act forcibly


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