Art History 315 Week 3 Notes
Art History 315 Week 3 Notes A/HI 315
Western Washington University
Popular in Early Modern Civic Identity
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anjali Grutzius on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to A/HI 315 at Western Washington University taught by Javier Berzal de Dios in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Early Modern Civic Identity in Art History at Western Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
Art History 315 10/3/2016 Take home midterm- 2 long essay questions The Myths of Venice Venetian Civic Identity Established by Way of Several Legends/Themes 1. Miraculous Birth and Virginal Character 2. The Peace of St. Mark 3. The Wisdom of Solomon 4. Appropriation of Classical Gods/Myths 1. Venice as Virgin and its Virgin Birth th 1. Divinely built (421 ad, March 25 ) 2. Virgin Mary= protector 3. No defenses 4. Justice rather than arms 5. Never sacked Justification for myths • No physical wall surrounding Venice • Remains independent • Venice navy • First republic of Christian era • Mysteriously built city • Real defenses= water and laws Tintoretto, Paradise, Ducal Palace, Venice c.1588 • Located behind the Doge’s chair • Replaced a painting that was there before, continuity • Complex, coronation of the Virgin as the Queen of Heaven • Angel with white lilies for the Annunciation • Celebration of the Virgin in political room • No one else celebrated the Virgin like the Venetians did at this time • Europeans focused more on Jesus • Image of Virgin Mary became politicalized Jacopo Palma il Giovane, The Triumph of Venice, Sala del Maggior Consiglio, Ducal Palace after 1577 • Crowning Venice (pictured as a woman) by an angel • Flag has the lion of St. Mark on it Jacopo Tintoretto, The Voluntary Submission of the Provinces to Venice, after 1577, Sala del Maggior Consiglio, Ducal Palace • Visualization of political structure, 3 tiers • Virgin Mary in the clouds with a lion, above the Basillica representing Venice. • Celebrating the political structure Veronese, Triumph of Venice, c.1585 • Personification of Venice often confused with the Virgin Mary Bonifaco de’ Pitati. Annunciation, Camera degli imprestidi, State Bond Office, Ducal Palace • What started the merging of Venice and Virgin Mary • Insterts a painting, placing it over Venice with God • God the Father Over Venice, 1540s • Visual power, sacreligous • Assimulation of Venice and Virgin Mary 2. The Peace of St. Mark Vittore Carpaccio, The Lion of St. Mark c.1516 • Translation of St. Mark’s body • Bible story of the Apocalypse of St. john: vision of four creatures. Each creature becomes associated with each gospel writer. Winged lion = St. Mark • Story of St. Mark in middle ages on his way to Alexandria. He stopped in Venice islands, and angel told him he would rest there. • Lion= half in the water and half on the land, stepping onto the Terrafirma • In 1560, Venice became more involved with Terrafirma and less a naval state, more agricultural society. • Lion’s mouth is open and depicts a powerful image • War of the League of Cambrai 1508-16, everyone turned against Venice. Titian, St. Mark Enthroned with Saints Sebastian, Roch and Others, c.1510 • St. Mark centered and on the throne instead of Mary. • St. Mark’s face covered in shadows, symbolizing dark times or to help Venice from a plague. Symbols are subtle, political. Titian, Pieta c.1576 (Titian’s last painting) • Style changes • St. Mark with a subtle lion, in front of dead Christ under and arch that hold a painted mosaic. The Scuola of San Marco- the most important scuola Condussi, Scuola Grande di San Marco c.1488-1495 • Renaissance building: rounded arches, columns, perspective, continuity, marble façade • Similar to San Marco’s Basilica through the rounded arches • More decoration on the façade Scuola is in charge of commissioning things, and helping people. • Manage theatre plays, parades, paintings • Helps with dowry and medical bills • Covers a set area of specialize in a section Gentile Bellini, St. Mark Preaching in Alexandria c.1504-07 • Huge painting • Middle Eastern clothing, animals, buildings depicted in an accurate way. • Looks more documentary • The venetian council behind St. Mark based off real members. • Creates a space that is Alexandria but also Venice. They converge. • Main building is not a real building. Similar to St. Mark’s Basilica but more exotic. • Pradestinatio? Sansovino, Library of St. Mark (Biblioteca) begun 1537-1591 • Alexandria had a library in the past. • Venice looking to the East Tintoretto, Discovery of the Body of ST. Mark & St. Mark’s Body brought to Venice • Seen as proof, making the myths factual • Seen as photographs, not paintings • Visual argument/essay trying to tell you something • Glorification of the state of Venice • Partonism to their symbols. 10/5/2016 Myths of Venice (continued) 3. Venice and Solomonic Wisdom Lady with crown and sword sculpture on outside of Doge’s Palace. • Represents Venice-> west façade (cape, regal looking) • Represents Justice West Side: Venice, St. Mark Lion, Doge kneeling • Justice sitting on a “Solomonic Throne”, like that in the Old Testament • In the quarter falls, 2 lions. (Surplus meaning) • Venice=Justice Porta Della Carta • Connects Basilica and Palace • Doge, Lion, Justice, sculptures • Angel Gabriel on Palace side • Virtues represented as sculptures Ceiling, Sala del Collegio, Doge’s Palace Veronese, Venice Enthroned with Justice and Peace, late 16 century • All three ladies look similar on purpose • Venice more regal than others. Sala dell’ Albergo della Scuola Grande di Santa Maria della Carita • Focused on charity work • Part of Academia now • Gave power to those with no nobility • Nobility could not run a scuola • Anyone can enter a scuola Titian, Presentation of the Virgin at the Temple, c.1534-48 • On the wall of the scuola • Mixes past and present • Portraiats of Venetians in the painting, black and red robes • Doge’s Palace next to temple in the painting • Subtle hints to the present • Solomonic Justice theme • Virgin Mary, full of light, halo, depicted as a child • Light from the window= “light source” for the painting • Pyramid->Egypt->Alexandria->Library->Knowledge, embedded into the painting • Political balance demonstrated • People leaning out of the windows to watch. • Mountain/land landscape in the back. Titian, Wisdom, c.1560 Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice Venice’s Class structure maintained by laws • Men traditionally wore black “togas” that indicated seriousness, piety • Venice regulated everything, constantly passing laws. Renaissance= rebirth of classical antiquity 4. Appropriation of Classical Gods/Myths The pagans gods and Venice, introduced very easily into their life Favorite Gods: Venus, Neptune (God of the Sea), Mercury (God of Commerce), Mars (God of War) Gods are overseeing the city, protecting Venice. Another way to present ideas. Antonio Rizzi Scala dei Giganti c.1483 Doge’s Palace, Venice straight staircase • Mars, Neptune sculptures, lions of St.Mark • Stato di terra= Mars • Stato di mare= Neptune • Gods were there to emphasize war and terror since Christianity can’t envoke terror. Sansovino, Coggietta Piazza San Marco, Venice 1538-1545 • Renaissance look • Coggeitta=no purpose, just pretty • 4 Gods sculptures, Mercury, Peace, Apollo, Minerva J.Sansoving, Venice/Justice between River Gods 1537-45 Ceiling of “Council of Ten” in the Doge’s Palace -Veronese, Jupiter Expelling the Vices, 1556 -Juno Showering Gifts On Venice, 1553. Woman with a lion, scepter, globe, imperial. Shows wealth and politics Giambattista Zelotti, Venice w/ Mars and Neptune, early 1550s Hall of Council of Ten • Venice, more nude • Classical • St. Mark’s Lion J. Tintoretto, Forge of the Vulcan, c.1578, Doge’s Palace -Forming the state, working Byzantine, St. George, Relief craving from san Marco Basilica, Venice th 13 century “Conceptual” or actual spoliation? Titian, La Schiauona c.1511, personal identity with classical antiquity Pietro Lombardo, Tomb of Doge Pietro Mocenigo, c.1474, Venice SS Giovanni e Paolo -funeral monument/classical -celebrate the Doges after they have no power Arsenale, portal 1460 -place to make boats and weapons -variation of lions
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