ETHNOMU 50A - Week 3 Lecture Notes
ETHNOMU 50A - Week 3 Lecture Notes Ethnomu 50A
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Franca Park on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ethnomu 50A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Harrison, Charley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
Week 3 – 10/11/16 Ragtime Reginald Robinson Song “Man out of Time” Present day ragtime musician/composer Musicians Ferdinand Jelly Roll Morton (18851941) o Pianist and composer o New Orleans o First to show that jazz could be written down Freddie Keppard (18901933) o One of the best jazz musicians in New Orleans o The Original Creole Orchestra o Draped handkerchief over hand, so other musicians wouldn’t see how he played o Passed up the opportunity to be the first jazz musician on a record Sydney Bechet (18971959) o Clarinetist and soprano saxophone Louis Armstrong o Trumpet player James Reese Europe (18811919) o Ragtime band leader Early jazz age/jazz age Jazz prior to 1930 (midterm) moving into the swing era (after midterm) Combo – smaller ensembles o 57 instruments o 3 horns/wind instruments 1. Trumpet 2. Trombone 3. Clarinet o Rhythm section 1. Piano 2. Drummer 3. Bass (tuba, left hand of the piano, very rarely the string bass or bass saxophone) 4. Banjo or guitar Personal creativity, melodic embellishments, jazzing up, messing around improvisation (term not used yet) Starting to show significant differences from ragtime and blues o Rhythmic feel is becoming looser, a little more relaxed, rigid o Develop jazz swing feel o Starting to generate original repertory, original songs, music written with intent of being performed by jazz group (roughly 19001905), prior it was more common to have a popular song and play it with a jazz style, use popular songs as a framework, similar to “ragging” tunes o Collective improvisation – improvising at the same time, develop techniques for improvising at the same time, but in a way where they didn’t interfere with each other Trumpet usually stayed closer to the melody with embellishments Trombone sat at lower register, filled the gaps when the trumpet player had to breathe Clarinet player played counter melody, complimentary to the melody, but higher than the trumpet Big 3 o Jelly Roll Morton Composer Played piano Credited himself for personally inventing jazz o Joe King Oliver Mentor to Louis Armstrong African American trumpet player from New Orleans King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band o Kid Ory African American trombonist Jazz moved to Chicago o Shipping cargo, river boats up the Mississippi with jazz entertainers, musicians traveled via these river boats o “Chicago Scene” o Roles and guidelines for collective improvisation were polished in Chicago o Chicago style of jazz allowed for more improvisation First 2 jazz groups to record 1. Dixie Land Jazz Band 2. King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band o First black group to record o King Oliver played trumpet Jazz moved to New York Week 3 – 10/13/16 Song Earl “Fatha” Hines o Pianist on “West End Blues” by Louis Armstrong o Bandleader o Born in Pittsburgh and moved to Chicago o Significantly influential of the jazz piano styles of the 1930s and 1940s o Recorded with Louis Armstrong o Incorporated and evolved with jazz o Improvisational style and construction of melodic phrases, trumpet style or horn like style Jazz age/early jazz Combo was most common jazz ensemble o Trumpet, trombone, clarinet o Rhythm section Piano, drummer, bass player, banjo or guitar Banjo was more common, because it was louder, projected better than acoustic guitar Start to express personal creativity, but not using the term improvisation yet o Embellishing, jazzing up, messing around Piano players o Many jazz pianists came from the east coast, New York, New Jersey, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C. o Most of the time pianist were unaccompanied o Early jazz piano music evolved from ragtime o Piano player only needs to know the melody and harmony (chord changes) of the song o Stride piano – Substyle of jazz piano, referred to motion of piano player’s left hand Bouncing pattern in which the piano player would pay a bass note and come down to play a chord, bass note and chord would alternate beats “one man band” Allowed piano players to entertain dancers 1. Jelly Roll Morton First recognized jazz composer “King Porter Stomp” Capable of playing in both ragtime and jazz styles Responsible in part for helping to transition ragtime to jazz on piano Credited to helping to pioneer the swing 8 note technique, which is crucial part of the jazz swing feel Didn’t have much of the stride style Only piano player from New Orleans 2. James P. Johnson Father of stride piano playing, because his style was imitated more than any other players From New Jersey The first African American pianist to be broadcast on the radio, allowed him to become heard by a much larger audience Smoothed transition from ragtime to jazz Influence on the Duke Ellington 3. Fats Waller Stride piano player, requires great mastery Band leader and songwriter (wrote songs with lyrics) Influenced Art Tatum and Count Basie Almost theatrical type of performance 4. Willie “The Lion” Smith Rival of Johnson, Waller Cutting contest or cutting session = “battle of the bands” Happens at clubs Pianists show off their technique or “chops” Boogie Woogie – Southern flavor of stride piano o Early jazz piano style o Syncopation is important o Difference is that the left hand drives the rhythm by playing eighth notes 1. Meade “Lux” Lewis 2. Cowcow Devonport 3. Albert Anmons 4. Pete Johnson Larger ensembles Paul Whiteman’s groups o Swing era o Band orchestra type of ensemble o Not that much improvisation o Multiple clarinets/sax/trumpet/trombones, tuba, French horn, strings o Caucasian musician that helped transition into swing Fletcher Henderson Duke Ellington Discussion 3 – 10/13/16 Why did jazz emerge in New Orleans? Loose cultural boundaries Active AfroCaribbean culture Vital musical life Strong dance tradition Pervasive “good times” atmosphere Numerous brass bands Congo Square o Market place located in the “back of town,” where Africans could practice their dancing and music Had largest population of free people of color in the United States o Most were Creoles Party town o Mardi Gras Buddy Bolden Blues Brings in rhythmic looseness and flexibility Transforms existing songs His sound was imitated by a lot of ppl Ratty, crying, voicelike sound Race If your black or Creole, you may be played less or have less gigs available to you Establish voice through music, when Jim Crow laws obstructed African Americans
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