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hesc 220 ch 4 pt 1

by: lex

hesc 220 ch 4 pt 1 HESC 220

Cal State Fullerton

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ch 4
Concepts Health Science
A. Ransons
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by lex on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HESC 220 at California State University - Fullerton taught by A. Ransons in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.


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Date Created: 10/15/16
CH  4  Epidemiology     Epidemiology   • Epidemiology  –  the  study  of  the  distribution  and  determinants  of  disease   frequency  (disease=health  outcome).   • Epidemiological  methods  are  used:   o to  investigate  causes  of  disease.   o to  identify  trends  in  disease  occurrence  that  may  influence  the  need   for  medical  and  public  health  services.   o to  evaluate  the  effectiveness  of  medical  and  public  health   interventions.   • Epidemic  vs.  Endemic     • Epidemiologists  count  cases  of  disease.     • Once  they  detect  signs  of  an  epidemic,  they  ask  who,  when  and  where   questions.   • Who  is  getting  the  disease?   • When  and  where  is  the  disease  occurring?   • From  this  information  they  can  hypothesize  why  it  is  occurring.     • Their  ultimate  goal  is  to  use  this  knowledge  to  control  and  prevent  the   spread  of  disease.   • John  Snow,  known  as  the  father  of  modern  epidemiology   • First  example  of  the  use  of  epidemiology  to  study  and  control  disease.   • Cholera  epidemic  in  London  in  1848,  Snow  hypothesized  that  cholera  was   spread  by  polluted  drinking  water.   • In  1853,  severe  cholera  outbreak,  Snow  tested  his  hypothesis    in  a  kind  of   natural  experiment.   • Epidemiologic  surveillance  –  a  system  governments  use  requiring  certain   “notifiable”  disease  be  reported  as  soon  as  they  are  diagnosed.     • Epidemiologic  surveillance  –  a  system  governments  use  requiring  certain   “notifiable”  disease  be  reported  as  soon  as  they  are  diagnosed.   • They  are  usually  infectious  diseases  whose  spread  can  be  prevented  if  the   appropriate  actions  are  taken.   • Timely  reporting  allows  public  health  officials  to  detect  an  emerging   epidemic  at  an  early  stage.     • Example  –  Hepatitis  A   • County  health  notices  an  outbreak  of  Hepatitis  A  thus  an  epidemiological   investigation  must  occur.   • Who?    They  start  with  the  reported  cases  and  interview  those  with  Hep.  A   • When?  They  ask  on  what  date  did  the  symptoms  first  appear?   • Where?  They  ask  where  they  obtained  their  food  and  water  during  the   period  of  likely  exposure,  and  what  sources  did  they  have  in  common.   • Other  examples:  Legionnaires  Disease  &  EMS   • Epidemiological  surveillance  is  a  major  line  of  defense  in  protecting  the   public  against  disease.   • The  sooner  the  system  kicks  in,  the  sooner  action  can  be  started  to  stop  the   epidemic.   • That  action  may  be  vaccination  campaigns,  isolation  of  infected  food   workers,  new  regulations  on  air  conditioning  systems,  recall  of  contaminated   food  or  drugs,  etc.          


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