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bio 151

by: lex
Cal State Fullerton

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Cell and Molecular Biology
A. Miyamoto
Class Notes
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by lex on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 151 at California State University - Fullerton taught by A. Miyamoto in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views.


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Date Created: 10/15/16
Chapter 1: Text: Figures 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 In Section 1.5 you are responsible for “The Nature of Science” and from the Null hypothesis through “Important Characteristics of Good Experimental Design”. You are not responsible for Scientific Names in Section 1.4 or the two experiments in Section 1.5. -Blue Thread and Check Your Understanding - Pasteur’s experiment (fig 1.2), end of Section 1.3, gene DNA sequences to determine diversity (fig 1.4), prokaryote and eukaryote cell size (fig 1.6), and end of Section 1.4 -Summary of Key Concepts - 1-5, of 5, including Blue Thread questions -Test Your Knowledge-questions 1-5 -Test Your Understanding -questions 1, 2, 5, 6 -Applying Concepts to New Situations -question 1-4 -Vocabulary: artificial selection cell cell theory conclusion control(s) domain energy eukaryotic cell evolution fitness hypothesis information processing inherited traits (heritable) natural selection null hypothesis phylogeny population prediction prokaryotic cell replication (properties of life) results species tree of life variation, genetic   1       2   PARTIAL Study Guide­Exam 1  BIOL 151 Spring 2016 ­­All figure numbers are from the 4  edition of the Freeman textbook­­ NOTE: Use the vocabulary below to identify what you are responsible for in each chapter. Chapter 2: Chemical Basis of Life Text:  Figures 2.1, 2.7, 2.8, 2.10, 2.13, 2.18, 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 2.25, Table 2.3 ­Blue Thread and Check Your Understanding­all, except for the experiment on  temperature and concentration ­Summary of Key Concepts­1­5 (of 5) including Blue Thread questions ­Test Your Knowledge­questions 1­6 ­Test Your Understanding­questions 1, 3, 6 ­Applying Concepts to New Situations­questions 1­2 ­Vocabulary: acid Gibbs free energy change adhesion (ΔG) amino group heat anion homeostasis atomic number hydrogen bond base hydrogen ion buffer hydronium ion  carbon hydrophilic carbonyl group hydrophobic carboxy group hydroxide ion cation hydroxyl group chemical bond ion chemical energy ionic bond chemical evolution kinetic energy chemical reaction neutron cohesion noncovalent bond covalent bond nonpolar covalent bond electron shell orbital electronegativity organic/organic molecule element pH endergonic phosphate group endothermic photon energy polar covalent bond enthalpy (H) potential energy entropy (S) products exergonic proton exothermic reactants first law of thermodynamics second law of thermodynamics free energy (G) solutes functional group solution 1 solvent thermal energy spontaneous reaction thermodynamics  sulfhydryl group valence shell surface tension valence electrons temperature 2 3 PARTIAL Study Guide­Exam 1  BIOL 151 Spring 2016 ­­All figure numbers are from the 4  edition of the Freeman textbook­­  APPLICATIONS AND UNDERSTANDING ON THE EXAM   (covering Ch 1­3, so far)  :  ­Know the number of covalent bonds that can be formed by hydrogen, nitrogen,  carbon, oxygen, and sulfur. ­Identify the 6 common types of functional groups ­In addition, be ready to draw the chemical structural formula of:  a single amino acid with a generic R group (Fig. 3.2)  a 2­amino acid di­peptide (Fig. 3.6) ­Be ready to discuss these experiments:  Pasteur’s experiment (Fig 1.2)  Chemical reactions response to temperature and concentration (Fig 2.22) Chapter 3: Protein Structure and Function NOTE: Use the vocabulary below to identify what you are responsible for in each chapter. Text:  Figures 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, Table 3.2, 3.14, 3.17, 3.18,  3.20, 3.21 ­Blue Thread and Check Your Understanding­all ­Summary of Key Concepts­1­4 (all 4), including blue thread questions ­Test Your Knowledge­questions 1­6 ­Test Your Understanding­questions 2­6 ­Applying Concepts to New Situations­question 4 ­Vocabulary: α(alpha)­helix  hydrophilic activation energy hydrophobic active site induced fit allosteric regulation ionized amino acid macromolecule β(beta)­pleated sheet  monomer catalysis non­ionized catalyst peptide chemical equilibrium peptide bond competitive inhibition polymer condensation reaction polymerization dehydration reaction polypeptide denaturation primary structure disulfide bond prion enzyme protein folding  quaternary structure function R­group hydrolysis reaction kinetics 1 secondary structure tertiary structure sickle cell anemia transition state side chain van der Waals interactions substrate 2 3 PARTIAL Study Guide­Exam 1  BIOL 151 Spring 2016 ­­All figure numbers are from the 4  edition of the Freeman textbook­­ APPLICATIONS AND UNDERSTANDING ON THE EXAM:  ­If given a 5­carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a triphosphate, be able to  draw the chemical structure of an intact nucleotide triphosphate. ­If given 2 nucleotide triphosphates, be able to draw a proper phosphodiester  bond. Chapter 4: Nucleic Acids Text:  Figures 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.6, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10, Table 4.1 ­Blue Thread and Check Your Understanding­all ­Summary of Key Concepts­all 4, including blue thread questions ­Test Your Knowledge­questions 1­6 ­Test Your Understanding­questions 1­6 ­Applying Concepts to New Situations­question 1­3 ­Vocabulary: Nucleic acids Deoxyribonucleotides Nucleotides Phosphodiester linkage Phosphate group DNA 5­carbon sugar RNA Nitrogenous base Antiparallel Adenine Complementary base pairing Guanine Stability Cytosine Double helix Thymine Template strand Uracil Complementary strand Pyrimidine Catalytic Purine Information­containing Ribonucleotides Structure 1 PARTIAL Study Guide­Exam 2  BIOL 151 Spring 2016 Applications and understanding:  Be able to answer the questions in Check Your Understanding' and 'Applying  Concepts to New Situations' listed below. Be able to interpret data from an experiment or pick an appropriate  experiment from a list for a given study. You are responsible for the  experiments we covered in class: Ch 7: Pulse­chase experiment for the secretory pathway, nuclear  localization “zip code” Chapter 7: Inside the cell (Use the vocabulary below to identify what you are responsible for in each chapter.) Text:  ­Figures: 7.14, 7.15, 7.22, 7.23, Review: Figs 7.1, 7.6, Summary Table 7.2. 7.24, 7.26,  7.28, Table 7.3, 7.29, 7.30, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35 ­Experiments: Nuclear zip code, Pulse­chase experiments ­Blue Thread Questions­receptor­mediated endocytosis, the nucleus zip code  experiment, and cytoskeleton section ­Check Your Understanding­ endomembrane systems and cytoskeleton  ­Summary of Key Concepts­Keys 2­4 (of 4) with blue thread questions ­Test Your Knowledge­question 1­6 ­Test Your Understanding­question 1­6 ­Applying Concepts to New Situations­questions 1­2 ­Vocabulary:  Nucleus ribosomes Nuclear envelope Nuclear localization signal Nuclear lamina Pulse­chase experiment Nucleolus Isotope (Ch. 2) Endoplasmic reticulum Radioactivity (Ch. 2) Rough ER ER signal sequence Smooth ER Signal recognition particle Lumen SRP receptor Golgi apparatus Glycosylation Cisternae Exocytosis Cytosol Mannose­6­phosphate Lysosome Transport vesicles Autophagy Actin filaments Phagocytosis Microtubules Receptor­mediated  Intermediate filaments endocytosis Nuclear Lamin Endosome Actin Early endosome Tubulin Late endosome Myosin Pinocytosis Dynein Nuclear pore Kinesin mRNA Centrosome 1 Centriole Cilia Cell crawling Flagella Cytokinesis Axoneme Microtubule organizing center 2 PARTIAL Study Guide­Exam 2  BIOL 151 Spring 2016 Chapter 8: Cell­cell Interactions Text:  ­Figures­ 8.2­8.5, 8.7­8.12 (including experiments), 8.13­8.18. ­Experiments: Selective adhesion in sponges & identification of adhesion proteins ­Summary of Key Concepts­ All Keys & Blue Thread checkmarks, except quorum  sensing ­Blue Thread questions and activities in text­all, except those concerning middle  lamellae. ­Test Your Knowledge­questions 1­6 ­Test Your Understanding­questions 2, 4, 5 ­Applying Concepts to New Situations­questions 1, 4 ­Vocabulary: actin intermediate filament adhesion kinases amino acid derivative middle lamella amplification nucleus animal pectin bacteria peptidoglycan cadherin phosphorylation cascade cellulose plants cell wall plasmodesmata chitin polypeptides collagen proteoglycans desmosomes Ras extracellular matrix receptor enzyme­linked receptors receptor tyrosine kinases feedback inhibition second messengers fibronectin signal transduction G protein steroids gap junctions target gene GTP exchange proteins tight junctions GTP transcription GDP transcription factor hormones integrin 3 4 Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Text:  ­Figures­ 9.1, 9.3, 9.5, 9.7­9.15, 9.17, 9.19, 9.21­9.28 ­Summary of Key Concepts­All Concepts & associated Blue Thread checkmarks ­Blue Thread questions­all, except evidence for chemiosmosis ­Test Your Knowledge­questions 1­6 ­Test Your Understanding­questions 1­6. ­Applying Concepts to New Situations­questions 1­4 ­Vocabulary: Acetyl CoA FADH 2 ADP Feedback inhibition Aerobic Fermentation Alcohol fermentation Glucose Anabolic pathways Glycolysis Anaerobic H2O ATP High­energy electron ATP synthase Hydrogen Catabolic pathways Inorganic phosphate Cellular respiration Intermembrane space Chemiosmosis Lactic acid fermentation Citric acid (Krebs) cycle  Metabolism CO 2 Mitochondrial matrix Complex I NAD+ Complex II NADH Complex III O2 Complex IV Outer membrane Cytoplasm Oxidation  Electron acceptor Oxidative phosphorylation Electron carrier Phosphofructokinase Electron donor Phosphorylation Electron transport chain Proton gradient Energetic coupling Proton­motive force Exergonic Pyruvate Endergonic Reduction Fo subunit Redox reactions F1 subunit Substrate­level phosphorylation FAD 5 6 Chapter 10: Photosynthesis  Text:  ­Figures­ 10.1, 10.5a, 10.6, 10.11­10.15, 10.17­10.19, 10.22­10.24 ­Experiments: Calvin cycle pulse­chase experiment ­Summary of Key Concepts­ All Concepts & associated Blue Thread checkmarks ­Blue Thread questions­starting with Photosystem II to the end of the chapter.  ­Test Your Knowledge­questions 1­6 ­Test Your Understanding­questions 1­6 ­Applying Concepts to New Situations­questions 1­3 ­Vocabulary: Antenna complex Pheophytin ATP synthase Photon Autotroph (see glossary) Photophosphorylation CAM plants Photorespiration C4 plants Photosynthesis Calvin cycle Photosystem I Chlorophylls Photosystem II Chloroplasts Pigments CO 2 Proton gradient Cyclic photophosphorylation Proton­motive force Electron transport chain Reaction center Glyceraldehyde 3­phosphate Ribulose bisphosphate  H 2 (RuBP) Heterotroph (see glossary)  Rubisco High energy electron Stoma (Stomata) Lumen Stroma NADP+ 3­phosphoglycerate NADPH Thylakoid lumen O 2 Thylakoid membrane PEP carboxylase Z scheme 7 Be sure to review Chapter 3, section 5 (Enzyme function) as well: rd Text:  ­Summary of Key Concepts­ 3  Key & Blue Thread checkmark ­Blue Thread questions and activities in text­all in 3.5 ­Test Your Knowledge­question 5 ­Test Your Understanding­questions 3, 5. ­Applying Concepts to New Situations­question 2 ­Vocabulary: Activation energy Competitive inhibition  Active site Enzyme Allosteric regulation Substrate Catalyst 8


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