Chapter 21 Notes
Chapter 21 Notes History 1112
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raven Hamilton on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1112 at Clayton State University taught by Shane Bell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Survey of Modern World History in History at Clayton State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
Chapter 21 In class notes: Colonial Rule Raw materials, such as oil, rubber, and tin, came from colonies in Asia and Africa. Markets for manufactured goods, missionary activities, and European cultural expansion were some motives for European exploitation. Countries who were exceptions to colonization include: Afghanistan and Ethiopia for their remoteness and mountainous terrain. Japan was a rising nonwestern nation that avoided colonial subjugation by pursuing political and economic reform. Thailand was a buffer between British and French spheres of influence. Cecil Rhodes “My ruling purpose is the extension of the British empire throughout the world.” Indirect Rule parts of Africa, Indian subcontinent, Malay peninsula. Direct Rule Burma (Myanmar), Morocco, Nigeria, Vietnam. Assimilation effort to transform colonial societies in the Western image. Association collaboration with local elites while leaving local traditions alone. India under the British Raj India becomes a part of the British empire in the late nineteenth century, and was until the mid twentieth century. During the decline of the Mughal Empire, the British did not help to restore it but instead gained control after its fall. A new school system was established to educate the children of the elite. Practices of sati (immolation of widows) and thuggery (organized crime) outlawed. Local worker out of work by introduction of British manufactured goods. Zamindar system used tax collectors who received land from which they kept part of the revenue. Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia Dutch East Indies and Spanish Philippines (1800). Nearly all of Southeast Asia under Western control by 1900. In 1819, the British founded Singapore. In 1898, the Philippines become and American colony after the U.S. defeats Spain in the Spanish American War. French Indochina Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia Emilio Aguinaldo Philippine guerilla leader; failed to thwart United States conquest. The Nature of Colonial Rule ruling colonies proved very economical profitable for empirical empires. The colonial regimes were slow to create democratic institutions and educational reforms also slowly adopted by colonial officials. Industrial development in these areas include Batavia on the island of Java, Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), Rangoon (Yangon), Burma (Myanmar), Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City), and French Indochina (Vietnam) “White Man’s Burden” phrase coined by author Richard Kipling (The Jungle Book). Refers to the nature of colonialism and burdens that come along with westernizing these colonies. Empire Building in Africa The main countries involved in the scramble for Africa were Portugal, Britain, Germany, France, and Belgium. The reasons for their interest in Africa include establishing buffers, or hegemony, and expanding life expectancies and technology. One of the first British colonies in West Africa was the Gold Coast (Ghana). Suez Canal was built by a Frenchman (18541869) and ultimately came under British control. The canal was extremely important as it provided an easy an accessible route from Europe to Asia. David Livingstone famous for African missionary and antislavery work. Urged Europeans to introduce the “three C’s” (Christianity, commerce, and civilization) Muhammad Ali modernized Egypt, extended its hegemony over neighboring regions. Boers Afrikaansspeaking farmers descended from original, Dutch settlers of Cape Colony. Great Trek northwest advance of the Boers. Boer War (18991902) after the discovery of gold and diamonds in the Boer Transvaal. Independent States in Africa Ethiopia (Abyssinia), Liberia which was founded in 1821 and declared their independence in 1847, Sudan (18851889). Liberia was founded to recolonize former slaves from the United States. Ram Mahan Roy, Brahmo Samaj (Society of Brahma 1828) organization provided Hinduism with protection against verbal attacks by British colonialists. Sepoy Rebellion in India (1857) animal fat and lard on the rifle cartridges used by the Sepoy troops; upset both Hindu and Muslim soldiers. Saya San led a peasant revolt in Burma against colonial rule.
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