Psych 101, Ch.5 Consciousness and Ch.9 Human Development Notes
Psych 101, Ch.5 Consciousness and Ch.9 Human Development Notes 101
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Motz on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Towson University taught by Beth A. Gallihue in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
Ch. 5 States of Consciousness Consciousness awareness of external events and internal sensations including awareness of self and thoughts about one’s experiences Awareness The flow of sensations, images, thoughts, and feelings. Can occur at different levels Levels of Awareness 1. HigherLevel Consciousness Controlled processing Actively focused towards a goal Requires attention; alert state 2. LowerLevel Consciousness Automatic processes Do not interfere with ongoing activities Ex: Daydreaming wandering thoughts, fantasy, imagination, and rumination, potentially useful (could be reminding or solving) 3. Altered States of Consciousness notably different from normal awareness Ex: hypnosis, meditating, fatigue, drinking, drugs, trauma, illness, psychological disorder, euphoria, and deprivation 4. Subconscious Awareness Incubation, just under the surface Low level of consciousness to the outside world Ex: sleep and dreams, coma 5. No awareness Unconscious (censored) thoughts Sigmund Freud Ex: Being knocked out Biological Rhythms Periodic Physiological Fluctuations Controlled by biological clocks Annual or Seasonal 24hour cycles Circadian Rhythms: sleep/wake cycles, temperature, and blood pressure The clock can be desynchronized by things like jet lag, shift work problems, or insomnia. Bright lights tell our system it’s daytime, and we need to wake up. Melatonin supplements can be taken to reset the clock. Sleep EEG measures electrical activity in the brain and identifies the 2 stages of wakefulness and the 5 stages of sleep. Wakefulness Beta waves (alert) Alpha waves (relaxed) Sleep Stage 1 Theta waves (light sleep) Lasts about 10 min Stage 2 Theta waves (sleep spindles) Lasts about 20 min Stage 3 Delta waves begin to appear (deep sleep) Lasts about 40 min Stage 4 More than 50% delta waves (deepest sleep) Stage 5 REM Sleep (where most dreaming occurs) Typically, 5 sleep cycles a night 90100 minutes per cycle Sleep patterns change during night Typical night includes 60% stages 1&2, 20% stages 3&4, 20% REM Sleep Disorders Insomnia inability to sleep 1/5 Americans more common in women, older adults, people who are thin, people who are stressed or depressed sleep talking, walking, and eating occurs during the deepest sleep very common Nightmares frightening dreams during REM common in children ages 36 times of stress Night Terrors sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear physiological symptoms less common than nightmares happen during nonREM sleep Narcolepsy the overpowering urge to sleep falling asleep while standing or talking enter directly into REM sleep inherited Sleep Apnea individuals stop breathing because the windpipe fails to open or brain process involved in respiration fails to open properly disrupted sleep, sleep deprived 12 million Americans diagnosed infants, older adults, obese people stroke, high blood pressure, impotence Theories of Dreaming Dreams hold both a historical and religious significance. Freud’s Psychodynamic Approach: Wish Fulfillment unconscious attempt to fulfill needs Manifest contentsurface content, symbols that distort the dreams true meaning Latent contenthidden content, dreams unconscious meaning Cognitive Theory: Information processing and memory Mental realm where we solve problems ActivationSynthesis Theory: Brain makes “sense” out of random brain activity Psychoactive Drugs Act on our nervous system to: alter consciousness modify perceptions change moods Tolerance: the need to take increasing amounts of a drug to produce the same effect Physical Dependence: a physical need for a drug and an unpleasant withdrawal when the drug is removed Psychological Dependence: strong desire/cravings to continue for emotional reasons Depressants: Slow down mental and physical activity Alcohol, Barbiturates, Tranquilizers, Opiates (Narcotics) Stimulants: increase CNS activity Amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy, caffeine, nicotine Hallucinogens: Modify perceptual experiences Marijuana, LSD, Mushrooms, “spice” Ch.9 Human Development Development a pattern of change in human capabilities that begins at conception and continues throughout the lifespan Physical processes puberty Cognitive processes how our thoughts develop Socioemotional processes relationships, emotion, and personality Nature V Nurture Nature our biological inheritance Nurture environmental experiences Resilience a person’s ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times *Resilient children become capable adults Prenatal Development Germinal Period (weeks 12) conception/fertilization zygote massive cell division Embryonic Period (weeks 38) organs appear brain and spinal cord embryo Fetal Period (Month 2 Until Birth) organs mature to a point where life can be sustained outside the mother Teratogens are agents that cause birth defects. They include things like nicotine and alcohol, and depend on timing of exposure, genetic characteristics, and postnatal environment. Reflexes are genetically wired behaviors, some crucial to survival. Reflexes like coughing, blinking, and yawning, persist throughout life. While things like grasping, rooting, and the startle response, disappear with neurological development. Perceptual and Motor Development The first 24 months of life humans develop at a faster pace than any other point in the lifespan Motor skills become more sophisticated Adolescent Physical Development Puberty Rapid skeletal and sexual maturation Puberty begins at the beginning of adolescence Testosterone(androgen) in boys Genital development, height, voice changes Estradiol (estrogen) in girls Breast, uterine, and skeletal development Adolescent Brain Development Early Development Amygdala: Emotions Late Development Prefrontal Cortex: Reasoning and Decision Making, risk taking Transition from Childhood to Adulthood Starts at age 1012 and Ends age 1821 Emerging Adulthood Extended Adolescence Five Key Features identity exploration instability selffocus feeling “in between” age of possibilities Physical Changes in Adulthood Early Adulthood peak of physical development and damaging lifestyle choices Middle Adulthood signs of aging become more noticeable and people become less fit concern for health and youthful appearance menopause for women (late 40searly 50s) Late Adulthood accumulated wear and tear less ability to repair and regenerate o Young Elderly moderately active slower mental function, but wisdom o Elderly Arthritis, hypertension, osteoporosis, weight loss o Frail Elderly Alzheimer’s and Dementia Life Span Capacity Humans have a capacity of about 120 years. The Average life expectancy for men is 73 and for women is 80. Socioemotional Development Erik Erikson’s 8 stages of development Theory emphasizes emotional development throughout the lifespan. Each stage represents a developmental task. “crisis” that must be resolved Time of heightened vulnerability and increased potential 2 outcomes either adaptive or maladaptive First Four Stages Childhood 1. Trust V Mistrust (Birth12 to 18 months) Basic needs, comfort, food, and warmth Attachment to the caregiver Trust infancy sets the stage that the world is a safe place too live 2. Autonomy V Shame and Doubt (18 months 3 years) Develop positive sense of independence or negative feeling of shame and doubt Discover and assert will on their own Beginning of perfectionism and OCD 3. Initiative V Guilt (3 to 6 years) Challenged to assume responsibility Learn how to take risks 4. Industry V Inferiority Mastery of knowledge and intellectual skills Recognized for accomplishments Completeness provides selfesteem, Unproductive makes inferiority Last Four Stages 5. Identity V Role Confusion (Adolescence) Who am I? Autonomy from parents Importance of peers Independent Decisions 6. Intimacy V Isolation (Young Adulthood) Individuals are forming intimate relationships with others Working on our career Work/lifestyle Childbearing (asking the question if you want kids) 7. Generativity V Stagnation (Middle Adulthood) Managing career and household Legacy assist younger generation “sandwich generation” Career change Midlife crisis 8. Integrity V Despair (Late Adulthood) Life review Life well spent or regrets Get over your past Developing a viewpoint about death Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Authoritarian parents are controlling and punitive Authoritative parents encourage independence with limits Neglectful parents generally uninvolved Permissive parents are involved, but place few limits Temperament an individual’s behavioral style or characteristic way of responding Easy: generally positive mood, routines, adapts easily to new experiences Difficult: reacts negatively, irregular daily routines, slow to accept new experiences SlowtoWarmUp: low activity level, somewhat negative, shows low adaptability and low intensity of mood Infant Attachment the close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver May provide important foundation for subsequent development. Secure: trusting and relaxed AnxiousAmbivalent: nervous and clingy Avoidant: suspicious and withdrawn Harlow Study A study where scientists provide a baby monkey with two “mother figures” and let them choose one. One is a wire monkey with food and the other is a cloth monkey without food. The monkey chose the cloth mother every time, proving that contact is more important than nourishment. Cognitive Development Children actively construct their cognitive world using: Schemas concepts or framework that organize or interpret information Assimilation incorporate new information into existing schemas Accommodation adjust schemas to new information Jean Piaget’s Theory 1. Sensorimotor Stage (birth 2 years) Coordinate sensations with movements Object permanence (Out of sight out of mind) Progress from reflexive actions to symbolic thought 2. Preoperational Stage (2 7 years) Symbolic thinking; words and images Intuitive reasoning (Why? Why? Why?) Egocentrism; can’t share 3. Concrete Operational Stage (7 11 years) Operational thinking (conservation) Classification Skills Reason logically in concrete contexts 4. Formal Operational Stage (1115 years) and so on… Lasts through adulthood Abstract and idealistic thought Hypotheticaldeductive reasoning Metaphors and allegories (understanding “don’t cry over spilt milk”)
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