PSYC 1101 Week 9
PSYC 1101 Week 9 PSYC 1101
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Pearce on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Trina Cyterski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
PSYC 1101 Week 9 Notes Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion Motivation ● Motivation: the processes by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met ○ Extrinsic: desired outcome is separate/external to the person ○ Intrinsic: activity is fun, challenging, or satisfying internally ○ Internal v. External locus of control ● Maslow's hierarchy 1 ○ Peak experiences: times in life when self- actualization is temporarily achieved Instincts ● Instincts: the biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exist in both people and animals ● Instinct approaches have faded away because they can describe human behavior, but not explain it Drive Reduction Theory ● According to drive-reduction theory, humans are motivated to satisfy physiological needs in order to maintain homeostasis. ● Drive-reduction theory, first proposed by Clark Hull in 1943, proposed that the purpose of biological drives is to correct disturbances of homeostasis. ● According to Hull, physiological needs result in psychological drive states that direct behavior to meet the needs and, ultimately, bring the system back to homeostasis. ● Primary drives are innate biological needs (e.g., thirst, hunger, and desire for sex), whereas secondary drives are associated with—and indirectly satisfy—primary drives (e.g., the desire for money, which helps pay for food and shelter). ● Drives are thought to underlie all behavior in that behaviors are only conditioned, or learned, if they satisfy a drive. ● Drive-reduction theory has been criticized for failing to explain how secondary reinforcers reduce drive or why individuals engage in "pleasure-seeking" behaviors. 2 Arousal ● Arousal Theory: theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation ● Stimulus Motive: motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation (such as curiosity) ● Yerkes Dodson Law: performance is related to arousal; moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance than do you high or low levels of arousal ○ Varies with task difficulty ■ Easy tasks require high to moderate levels of arousal ■ more difficult tasks require low to moderate levels of arousal 3 4 Need for Sensation ● Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire ○ A self-report measure called the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire, Form III, Revised (ZKPQ) has been developed to assess these five traits: ■ Impulsive sensation seeking (ImpSS) ■ Neuroticism–anxiety (N-Anx) ■ Aggression–hostility (Agg-Host) ■ Sociability (Sy) ■ Activity (Act) ○ It consists of 99 items in a true-false format. In addition to scales measuring the five factors, it contains an "infrequency" validity scale. ● Sensation Seeker: one who needs/searches for more arousal than the average ● Incentive Approach to Motivation: theories of motivation in which behavior is explained as a response to external stimulus and it’s rewarding properties ○ Incentive: attraction or lure to action ● Need for achievement (nAch): involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals—not only realistic ones, but also challenging ones ● Need for affiliation (nAff): the need for friendly social interactions and relationships with others ● Need for power (nPow): the need to have control or influence over others ● Self-Determination Theory: the social context of an action has an effect on the type of motivation existing for the action ○ Autonomy: need to be in control of own actions ○ Competence: need to be able to master challenging tasks ○ Relatedness: need to feel a sense of belonging 5 Carol Dweck ● Fixed mindset v. growth mindset ● Students carry two types of views on ability/intelligence: ○ Entity View – This view (those who are called “Entity theorists”) treats intelligence as fixed and stable. These students have a high desire to prove themselves to others; to be seen as smart and avoid looking unintelligent. ○ Incremental View – This view treats intelligence as malleable, fluid, and changeable. These students see satisfaction coming from the process of learning and often see opportunities to get better. They do not focus on what the outcome will say about them, but what they can attain from taking part in the venture. 6 ● Entity theorists are susceptible to learned helplessness because they may feel that circumstances are outside their control (i.e. there’s nothing that could have been done to make things better), thus they may give up easily. As a result, they may simply avoid situations or activities that they perceive to be challenging (perhaps through procrastination, absenteeism, etc.). ● Alternatively, they may purposely choose extremely difficult tasks so that they have an excuse for failure. Ultimately, they may stop trying altogether. Because success (or failure) is often linked to what is perceived as a fixed amount of intelligence rather than effort (e.g., the belief that “I did poorly because I’m not a smart person”). ● Students may think that failure implies a natural lack of intelligence. Dweck found that students with a long history of success may be the most vulnerable for developing learned helplessness because they may buy into the entity view of intelligence more readily than those with less frequent success. ● Those with an incremental view (“Incremental theorists”) when faced with failure, react differently: these students desire to master challenges, and therefore adopt a mastery-oriented pattern. ● Unlike Entity theorists, Incremental theorists believe that effort, through increased learning and strategy development, will actually increase their intelligence. 7 Hunger - Biological Causes ● Insulin and glucagon: hormones secreted by the pancreas to control levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the bloodstream ○ insulin reduces the level of glucose in the bloodstream ○ glucagon increases the level of glucose in the bloodstream ● Leptin: hormone that signals the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food and reduces the appetite while increasing the feeling of being full ● Hypothalamus plays role in hunger; responds to levels of glucose and insulin in the body ● Weight set point: the particular level of weight that the body tries to maintain ● Basal metabolic rate (BMR): the rate at which the body burns energy when the organism is resting Hunger - Social Causes ● Social cues for when meals are to be eaten ○ Cultural customs ○ Food preferences ○ Use of food as a comfort device or escape from unpleasantness ● Some people may respond to the anticipation of eating by producing an insulin response ● Obesity: the body weight of a person is 20 percent or more over the ideal body weight for that person’s height (actual percents vary across definitions) ○ biological causes include heredity, hormones, and slowing metabolism with age 8 ○ overeating is a major factor as food supplies stabilize in developing countries and Western-culture lifestyles are adopted Figure 9.4 Obese Laboratory Rat The rat on the left has reached a high level of obesity because its ventromedial hypothalamus has been deliberately damaged in the laboratory. The result is a rat that no longer receives signals of being satiated, and so the rat continues to eat and eat and eat. 9
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