Psych 101 chapter 3
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelebet Engida on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Washington taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
Psych 101 Chapter 3 Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind A.The Brain and Consciousness a. Consciousness: Awareness of ourselves and our environment. b.Cognitive Neuroscience: Study of the brain activity linked with mental process. (perception, thinking, memory and language) c. Dual Processing: The Two-Track mind i. Dual Processing :info processed simultaneously on separate conscious and unconscious track. ii. Implicit vs explicit: Consequences of this is Selective attention. 1. Conscious, deliberate “high road” a. Explicit, reflective, deliberate, effortful 2. Unconscious, automatic “low Road” a. Implicit, perception, automatic, effortless iii. Blind sight: condition which a person could respond to visual stimulant without consciously experiencing it. d.Selective Attention: i. Selective Attention: focus of consciousness on a particular stimulus. 1. Selective Attention and Accidents 2. Selective Inattention B. Sleep and Dream a. Biological Rhythms and Sleep i. Circadian Rhythm (Biological Clock): regular bodily rhythms. Experienced by 24 hours. ii. Study of sleep EEG (Electroencephalography) iii. Sleep Stages 1. Waking Beta: your awake & alert. 2. Waking Alpha: Awake but relaxed 3. REM: rapid eye movement Stage with vivid dreams Easily awaken 4. NREM-1: Body is more relaxed and experience Hallucination. 5. NREM-2: Deeper stage of sleep brain waves are getting slower 6. NREM- 3: Hardest wake up and makes you groggy. iv. REM Sleep-Rapid eye movment v. What Affects Our Sleep Patterns? 1. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus a. under Hypothalamus b. Respond to light by changing level of melatonin 2. Bright light=less sleep. b.Sleep Theories i. Protection: It’s a survival mechanism. ii. Restoration: repairs neurons from becoming depleted from the byproduct of cellular activity. iii. Memory consolidation: strength and stabilizes neural correlates of memory. iv. Creativity: boosts thinking and learning and we are able to spot more connections. c. Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Disorder i. Effects of Sleep Loss 1. Continued sleep deprivation: mood swing, depression, hallucinations 2. Weight gain a. Increase stimuli of hunger and fat production b. Comprised immune systems c. More sleep will have longer life span 3. Drowsiness, reduced concentration, irritability. 4. Impaired performance a. Math calculation b. Memory c. Creativity d. Muscle performance. e. Hand eye coordination ii. Major Sleep Disorder 1. Insomnia: is the inability to asleep. a. Often treated with medication but not effective. b. Other treatments are cognitive behavioral change, lifestyle change. 2. Narcolepsy: sudden periods of overwhelming sliminess during normal waking hour. a. Cataplexy: sudden loss of voluntary muscle tone. b. EPISODES last a few minutes c. Medicated with sedatives 3. Sleep Apnea: Stop breathing while sleeping a. Frequently waking up for a gasp of air b. Unaware of the conditions c. Treated with use of device that blows air in the nose or mouth 4. Night terror: MOST COMMON IN CHILDREN i. No recall of the event but appears terrified, sit up ii. Occurs in the 1 few minutes of NREM-3 iii. Usually goes away on its own 5. Sleep walking: people get up and walk around while asleep a. Unresponsive, no memory b. Mostly in children during NREM-# c. Caused by genes, lifestyle or medical condition d. Goes away on its own. 6. REM sleep behavior disorder a. Acting out dreams b. No muscle paralysis c. May remember the episode d.Dreams i. Mostly occur in REM sleep ii. Why We Dream 1. Info processing model: helps us sort out the day’s events 2. Physiological functions model: Brain stimulates from REM sleep helps to develop and preserve neural pathways 3. Activation synthesis model: cortex trying to make sense of the neuron random signal from the pon. Creates a story from fragments. iii. What We Dream 1. Lucid dreams a. Realizing that your dreaming b. Occur during REM c. Being able to remember the circumstance C.Hypnosis a. Frequently Asked Questions About Hypnosis b. Explaining The Hypnotized State i. Hypnosis as a Social Phenomenon ii. Hypnosis as Divided Consciousness D.Drugs and Consciousness a. Tolerance, Dependence and Addiction i. Tolerance: with repeated use achieving desired effect require higher doses ii. Addiction: craving and use despite negative consequences iii.Withdrawal: Discomfort and distress when stopping an addiction. b.Type of Psychoactive Drugs: alter mood & perception by affecting neurotransmitters i. Depressants: reduce neutral activity and bodily functions 1. Alcohol: relaxation a. Expectancy effects 2. Barbiturates (tranquilizer): a lot of sleep and less anxiety 3. Opiates: pain reliever a. Morphine b. Heroine ii. Stimulants: intensify neural activity and bodily function. Enhance cognition 1. Nicotine: Arousal 2. Caffeine: alertness 3. Amphetamines: Energy a. Adderall: focus b. Cocaine c. Methamphetamine d. MDMA (molly & Ecstasy): empathy/ emotional intimacy iii. Hallucinogens (psychedelics): distort perceptions and amplify sensory experience 1. LSD 2. Psilocybin a. Active ingredient in psychoactive mushrooms 3. THC a. Active ingredient in Marijuana iv. Nootropics: improve cognitive function including memory 1. Frequent use for productivity 2. caffeine c. Influence on Drug Use i. Biological Influences 1. Many stimulant blocks reuptake of NTs like dopamine and serotonin 2. After the drugs goes off then you experience crash 3. MDMA reduce blood flow ii. Psychological and Social-Cultural Influences 1. Plays large role in brain health and like hood of becoming addicted 2. Perceptual changes a. Synesthesia: blending of the sense.
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