SCI 1101, Week 7 notes
SCI 1101, Week 7 notes SCI 1101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Bagyi on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCI 1101 at Kennesaw State University taught by Professor Kay Abikoye in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Science, Society & Environ I in Environmental Science at Kennesaw State University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
SCI 1101 Chapter 9 • No-till farming: leaving crop residue atop the fields o Benefits the soil o Saves time + money • Cover crops: crops planted to hold soil in place between the times that maintain food crops and growing • Agriculture: practice of raising crops + livestock for human use + consumption • Cropland: land used to raise plants for human use • Rangeland / pasture: land used for grazing livestock • Soil: a complex plant-supporting system o Consists of disintegrated rock, organic matter, water, gases, nutrients + microorganisms o It’s a renewable resource that can be depleted • Sustainable agriculture: something we can practice in the same way + place far into the future • Traditional agriculture: biologically powered form of agriculture that uses human + animal muscle power • Subsistence agriculture: it is where families produce • Polyculture: multiple crops are planted in one field • Industrialized agriculture: it uses large-scale mechanization + fossil fuels to boost yields • Monoculture: uniform planting of a single crop • Green revolution: new technology, crop varieties + farming practices were introduced to developing countries • Soil à 50% mineral matter; 5% organic matter (dead + living organisms, decaying materials from plants + animals) o It’s teeming with bacteria, algae, fungi + protists & provides habitat for worms, etc. o It is considered an ecosystem • Parent material: the base ecologic material of soil • Bedrock: solid rock compromising the Earth’s crust • Weathering: processes that break large rock particles down into smaller ones o Physical: wind + rain; no chemical changes in parent material o Chemical: parent material is chemically changed o Biological: organisms produce soil through physical or chemical means • Humus: spongy material formed by partial decomposition of organic matter; holds water • Influencing factors: o Climate: soil forms faster in warm + wet climate o Organisms: plants + decomposition add organic matter o Topography: hills + valleys affect exposure to sun, wind + water o Parent material: influences properties of resulting soil o Time: soil can take decades to form • Horizon: each layer of soil • Soil profile: the cross-section of soil as a whole SCI 1101 Chapter 9 • Leaching: process whereby dissolved particles move down through horizons + may end up in drinking water • Topsoil: inorganic + organic material; most nutritive for plants • Color indicates composition + fertility o Black/dark brown à rich in organic matter o Pale gray/white à indicates leaching • Clay à silt à sand • Loam: soil with even mixture of the 3 • Soil degradation: a decline in soil quality + productivity • Land degradation: a general deterioration of land, decreasing its productivity + biodiversity KNOW LAYERS!!
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