HIST Week 7 Notes
HIST Week 7 Notes HIST 1005
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Meyer on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1005 at Louisiana State University taught by Dr. Jason Wolfe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Week 7 Notes Plato (429-347 BC) Socrates’s student Greater good as a society is more important than individual happiness Used Socrates in his writing as the chief philosophical debater Focused on essence of reality (ideas and ideal forms) Truth is eternal, trained mind to obtain truth Perception is a reflection of ideal forms “The Cave”: a situation as children are changed in the cave and everything we know is in our past but we can only look forward. All of humanity only knows the reflection of the truth. If you break the chains, you can finally see fully but it is painful through fear and confusion (Should I run back because it is comfortable? Or should I take the pain?) Humanity does not like to be challenged. Plato thinks very few people break out of the cave. Plato questioned reality and reinforces Plato’s theories of forms. The Republic o Plato’s governmental ideals that create stability o Ethical life obtainable when rational o Basic groups in ideal state Upper class – philosopher kings, better judges to what is true and good and are intelligent Brave citizens – warriors The Masses: not intelligenct or courageous (artisans, tradesman, and farmers Believed women who are led by wisdom can also be upper class, philosophers, and can rule Found The Academy Aristotle (384-322 BC): applied/natural philosopher, used his senses Believed the ideal forms are wrong, and that reality is based on form and matter (and inseparable) Analyzed and classified things based on research and investigation (empiricism – collecting empirical data) Tutored Alexander the Great Politics: three good forms of government that applied to size of population o Monarchy (when good)– tyranny (when it goes bad) For large populations (would take forever to get anything done) o Aristocracy (when good) – oligarchy (wealthy families that make decisions selfishly and for themselves) For medium populations (have access to education and resources, meaning they know how to rule) o Constitutional (citizen power) – Anarchy (if power is diffused and government fails, there is no central power to take control) Smaller populations Believed women were biologically inferior, should be subjugated Alexander the Great “The Hellenistic World” Rise of Macedonia and Conquests of Alexander o Macedonia: takes advantage of independent Greek city- states o Philip II (359-336 BC): his father, was able to defeat Athens and created the Corinthian League , wanted to conquer and defeat the Persians o Corinthian League: When he conquered, he wanted to gained allies through foreign affairs/trade (local autonomy, but when it comes to war, you have to help) o Is assassinated Had marriages as forms of alliances Olympias is wife and mother of Alexander Marries another women called Cleopatra, wanting another child Attalus, and declares Alex as an illegitimate During an argument between Attalus and Alexander, Philip lunges towards them with a knife in order to kill Alexander Pausanias: Philip’s bodyguard, former lover, and assassinator; conspiracy that order was sent by Olympias and Alexander o Alexander became next ruler Conquests of Alexander: battle tactics were through quick deployment of cavalry and used unconventional tactics o Battle of Granicus River: first battle between Persians and Greek o In battles, Persian military had Greek mercenaries fighting for them; and when he wins, he enslaved half of them and killed the other half (do not be a traitor) o Kept on moving Persians back o Bessus assassinates Darius III, wanting Alexander to be an ally Alexander got pissed off since he could not defeat Darius anymore and later killed Bessus Continues to press on to S. Asia o India o Hydaspes River o By this time, his forces are exhausted, and many believed that he wanted to conquer everything, which Alexander’s army was abandoned Legacy o Military leader o Helenistic age Roxanne o Cultural legacy Cities Settlers Cosmopolis The World of Hellenism Have standardization of coinage, which increases trade all around – making commerce more fluid Travel is increasing, increasing culture and knowledge There is a common tongue of Greek language Hellenistic Cities Settlement of Greeks Greek culture Polis: shift from polis to Cosmopolis, now instead of being separate, they are under the supervision of Hellenism Exclusion Spread of Hellenistic Culture in Near East A Golden Age of Science: coming from the interaction between places Astronomy o Aristarchus of Samos (310 – 250 BC) Heliocentric view o Eratosthenes (275 – 194 BC) Earth was round Circumference was 24, 675 (about 200 miles off) Geometry o Euclid (300 BC) Established the fundamentals of geometry Archimedes of Syracuse (287 – 212 BC) Geometry of spheres and cylinders Archimedean screw Philisophy: New Schools of Thought o Epicurus (341 – 270 BC) Adoptied Democritus’ atomic theory Sctrine of pleasure in moderation: pleasure meaning food, drink, clothing, housing, etc. Gods not active in daily life “Seek your own path” o Stoicism: doing what you think is right and good Zeno (335 – 263 BC) Happiness through virtue Public service is more important than politics o Cynics Reject all material possessions Diogenes (412 – 323 BC): lived in a barrel and was a grumpy, smart man Religion in Hellenistic World Civic cults Mystery cults o Cult of Isis o Mithraism The Jews: resisted adoption of Greek culture and saw it as rejecting their own religion and culture (strict because they had a covenant with God and deviating from that is going against God) o Judaea Judah Maccabaeus o Jews outside Judaea: more assimilated and willing to adopt Greek culture, benefits the elites because increase in trade and become integrated into society Convergig Influences in Central and South Asia Influences from Mauryan Empire o When strong leaders die, there is turmoil and power struggle (genereal would divide things throughout themselves) o Mauryan Empire was founded by Chandragupta, rounded his troops and took over parts of N. Africa o Asoka expanded empire further, strong political and military leader o After consolidating power, he realizes warfare costs a lot of blood and gold after Battle of Kalinga o Edict of Kalinga: tried to put a practice of nonviolence and peace under his rule since he was a Buddhist o Honestly, makes it easier to rule because no one wants to be violent o Promoted expansion of Buddhism through stupas (tower monuments to Buddha) and dharma (truth and justice that applies to all of humanity, similar to ma’at) o Rule is successful because when you see a political power supporting a religion, you see a spike in support because it becomes a paradime Influence of Kushans o Used to be nomadic steppe people o Played critical role (intermediaries) in formation of Silk Road o Adopted Greek culture and language, allowed them to communicate with the rest of the world Transformation of Buddhism People transform India’s Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism: seeing Buddha as a deity, appealing t average people because it opens a more promising door for an afterlife (for ALL people), allowing everyone to have hope Formation of Silk Road Silk Road promoted Buddhism Important with trade because communication increases along with trade, which allows spread of ideas and technology Where we get the term Middle East because it is in the middle of the far East and far West Western perspective, defining cultural dominance Was not a one, single road “Shrinks the world” – people who live far away have more in common with you than 1000 years ago, increasing universal ideas